Open Access Short Research Article

The Profile and Behaviour of ‘Digital Tourists’ When Making Decisions Concerning Travelling Case Study: Generation Z in South Jakarta

Budi Setiawan, Ni Luh Putu Trisdyani, Putu Pramania Adnyana, I. Nyoman Adnyana, Kadek Wiweka, Hesti Retno Wulandani

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 2, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43872

Generation Z is predicted to be tourism’s main target market in the next five to ten years. This generation’s social behaviour is relatively different from that of its predecessors, especially as they grew up and developed in the technological era. Market behaviour concerning tourism is important information for tourism industry stakeholders. They are required to always anticipate and adapt to changes in market behaviour or tourists especially how generation Z organises their travels (pre-trip, during the trip, and after the trip). This research seeks to identify these behaviours and to describe the media this generation use. The sample for this research is made up of adolescents who were born between 1995 and 2000 and lived in South Jakarta. A qualitative descriptive approach was used for this research, while the data analysis technique uses the triangulation method, or in other words by synchronising various data sources such as interviews, literature studies, and questionnaires. The study found that Generation Z can be categorised as ‘digital tourists’ as they are highly dependent on and intensively use (six to 16 hours per day) technologies such as gadgets, social media, and the Internet. When travelling, they are more likely to utilise online media than conventional travel agencies to search for information and make reservations. Meanwhile, during their trip, Generation Z tends to obtain ‘direct contact’ with local people, having an interest in culture and culinary areas. In addition, whether a location is ‘Instagramable’ or not is a very important factor as most of their activities involve documenting images or videos and publishing these on their social media accounts. In general, due to their characteristics, this generation can be called ‘Incipient Mass’ tourists.


Open Access Original Research Article

Physical Planning Inputs in Managing Desertification: A Case Study of Jibia Local Government Area in Nigeria

Hadiza Tanimu Ahmed, Muhammad Isma’il, Mohammad Ahmad Falaki

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 2, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/air/2018/v17i2569

Jibia Local Government Area falls within the arid zones of the desert. This region is characterized by low amount of rainfall, high temperature, low humidity which has caused frequent drought in the area thereby making the area vulnerable to desertification. This has adversely affected the socioeconomic activities of the inhabitants of the area. This study utilized climatic data to examine prevailing physical environmental conditions in Jibia, also field survey data was acquired to understand the present desertification adaptation strategies in the area with a view to making physical planning proposals. Since Jibia falls within the arid zone, it is therefore proposed that in planning a settlement in the area, emphasis should be based on centralizing the residential areas; this should then be followed by an open space for future expansion. Trees should be provided round the residential area to serve as buffer against the winds and sunrays. Moreover, there should be an expanse of farmland for cultivation by the inhabitants at the outskirts of the residential area. Narrow routes should also be provided, shaded with trees.


Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Production of Palm Nut and Fibre Separating Machine

Okolie, Paul Chukwulozie, Oluwadare, Benjamin Segun, Ezenwa, Obiora Nnaemeka, Azaka, Onyemazuwa Andrew

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 2, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44549

Palm nut and fibre separating machine have been designed, constructed and tested. The essential components of the machine are the feeding chute, separating unit, pulverizing unit, discharge outlets for nut and fibre, and the prime mover. The power required for operation of the machine is 2.86 KW. The machine was tested with both dry and wet samples of the nut and fibre mixtures for three different runs and the average gotten and tabulated. The investigation results revealed that the machine gave its optimum work performed using the dry mixture at the throughput capacity, separating efficiency and quality performance efficiency of 0.155 kg/sec, 89.7 % and 82.3 % respectively. However, the throughput capacity, separating efficiency and quality performance efficiency with the wet mixture gave 0.144 kg/sec, 79.3 % and 80.1 % respectively.


Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Ogbese River Irrigation on Soil and Vegetable (Celosia argentea) Crops Grown in Ogbese with Special Reference to Heavy Metals

O. O. Olubanjo, O. O. Olanrewaju

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 2, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42497

The bank of River Ogbese during the wet and dry season is influenced by anthropogenic activities such as wastes disposal, dumping of sewage, runoffs from an artificial application of fertiliser on farmlands. Runoff of rainwater could carry various ionic species along with heavy metals from top layer of soil due to the soil erosion into the river or leave them as sediments on the farm soils and these ionic species and heavy metals accumulated in River Ogbese irrigated soil, moreover translocate from root to upper parts of vegetables grown on them. This gave the drive to investigate the concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mg in the river, soil, and vegetable (Lagos spinach) cultivated along the bank of River Ogbese using AAS (AAS buck scientific 210 vgp). The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mg in water, vegetable, soil, control vegetable, and control soil were observed and recorded respectively. The concentration of lead in Water, Soil and Vegetable leaves were found higher when compared with standards of WHO (2002, 2009). Furthermore, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mg were observed below the prescribed limit of WHO (2002, 2009). The values of the heavy metals were analysed for various samples along with samples along dumpsites which were higher than from the control site thus, suggesting possible mobility of metals from dumpsite to farmlands through leaching and runoffs, but all the control site values were observed below the prescribed limit of WHO (2002, 2009). Hence, the anthropogenic activities on the river bank are not yet controlled; these might influence the heavy metals concentration in future. It was concluded that vegetables grown in River Ogbese irrigated soil were not fit for local population. At such, there will be an urgent need to take important action from local authorities at various levels to ensure adequate waste disposal to prevent indiscriminate dumping of waste into water bodies and the need to increase public awareness in order to protect the river should be encouraged.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Estimation of Rail Passenger Queuing Time during Ticketing Service at Abuja (IDU) Railway Station, Nigeria.

Tari L. Lazarus, Fatai O. Anafi, Okolie P. Chukwulozie, Okoli K. Obinna

Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 2, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44548

Queuing is an unavoidable condition faced in our day to day life. In a given organisation where service is being provided, a queue or waiting line is formed whenever an existing request of customers surpasses the present capability of servers to function. In this research, an estimation of passenger queuing time at the ticket window section of the Abuja (Idu) Railway station, Nigeria was carried out. The study design used in this research is the cross section descriptive observational study design, major data for the study was obtained by observation, using two digital stop watch to determine the number of servers, average arrival rate and average service rate of passengers with respect to the various train departure time without distracting employees of the railway station. Multi-server approach with its queuing mathematical model was embedded using MS excel spreadsheet to develop a queue excel template which was used to analyse and calculate the system performance measures (the average time a passenger is expected to spend in the ticketing section of the system). Results showed that a passenger is expected to spend an average of 5 minutes 26 seconds on Monday during the departure period of 06:30-07:00 am and 4 minutes 4 seconds in the ticketing section of the station during the 05:30-06:00 pm departure period. On a regular Saturday where the arrival rate is slightly greater than weekdays because more people usually travel to Kaduna, a passenger on that day is expected to spend an average of 6 minutes 5 seconds and 6 minutes 14 seconds in the system during the 6:30-07:00 am and 05:30-06:00 pm train departure time respectively. During festive periods where the arrival rate is far greater than the rate for regular days, a passenger is expected to spend an average of 7 minutes 9 seconds and 10 minutes 3 seconds in the system during the 06:30-07:00 am and 09:20-09:50 am train departure times respectively. From the analysis, increasing the number of workers (servers) result to a reduction in the average waiting time of passengers in queue and a decrease in the average waiting time of passenger in the queue decreases the total expected cost (cost of operating the service facilities) of the station. Therefore, by applying the Queuing model, the queuing time of the railway passengers was determined and improved upon.