This paper investigates the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and export (X) towards Malaysia’s economic growth over the period 1980 to 2011. Most past empirical studies observed that both FDI and export are the important sources of economic growth especially after the country’s liberalization in 1986. The interest of this paper is to find out which determinant contributes higher for the growth by applying recent time series analysis known as Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) approach proposed by Pesaran (2001) by modifying the standard Cobb Douglas production function. The results confirmed that determinant; FDI and export are positively correlated with higher growth and will be converge in the long run. Based on the contribution, export is proven to contribute more than FDI for the growth of Malaysian economy. The outcome of this analysis can give important insight to the policymaker so that Malaysia will not lose track in competing with other rising Asian countries. The lack of FDI and income received from export activities may constrain to economic growth and vice versa.
In the present scenario, the digital image processing has enveloped the whole world of advancing technology. The changes on-going in the world are directly or indirectly related to the processing of digital images. In this paper, we studied the impact of changing contrast and brightness on the digital images under outdoor conditions and checked out how the position of Sun effects contrast and intensity of the particular image and at what values of contrast and intensity, the pictures were more refined. A total of 52 images shot in North, South, East and West were taken for the experiment after regular intervals. Genetic algorithm was used by several authors to enhance the quality of images in terms of brightness and contrast. Here we investigated whether the brightness and contrast are direction and time orientated. The analysis shows that for the set of images taken, contrast is slightly affected by the whereas the effect of brightness is more pronounced with respect to time and direction.
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of palm fibers on the properties of lightweight concrete. Such lightweight concrete was produced from coarse lightweight crushed brick and fine lightweight crushed brick (CLWA and FLWA). Different percentages of palm fiber; 0, 0.25, 0.5 0.75, 1, and 1.25% based on volumetric fractions were included with lightweight concrete mixes. The properties tested include fresh density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, static modulus of elasticity, absorption, flexural strength, and toughness indices. The results show that the use of 0.75% of palm fiber would raise the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of the lightweight concrete by about 11%, 47% and 18%, respectively. The same percentage of palm fibers would significantly enhance the toughness performance of crushed brick lightweight concrete.
CuS films were fabricated by a chemical bath deposition process in an aqueous solution of cupric acetate, thiourea, and different contents of sodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA-2Na) at 50ºC. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrophotometry. The effects of EDTA-2Na content and deposition time on the deposition rate, thickness, transmittance, band gap energy and photoluminescence of the films were investigated. The films were fast deposited with this method. Molar ratio of EDTA-2Na/Cu2+=1.0 led to fastest deposition. The band gap energy of the films is in the range of 2.59−2.92 eV, decreasing with increasing deposition time. The films showed broad emission centered at ~443 nm.
Microbial communities have a vast importance to the ecosystem being of use by humans for health or industrial purposes. Most bacteria can be distinguished into three groups: saprophytic; symbiotic and parasitic. Saprophytic bacteria, which are the major decomposers of organic matter, can be applied in treatment of metalliferous mine, radioactive environmental wastes, biodiesel production, among others. Symbiotic bacteria live in a mutually beneficial association with other organisms providing essential nutrients to their host organisms. However, some bacteria are able to cause diseases (i.e, parasitic bacteria also referred to as pathogens). To control the growth of these parasitic bacteria, antimicrobial peptides and polypeptides such as lectins are promising raw materials for the production of new antibiotics. Lectins are able to interact with carbohydrates in bacterial cell walls and promote antibacterial activity. The aim of this review was to describe the importance of bacteria to environments, their use as biological control agents and the application of lectins to control pathogenic bacteria.