Open Access Opinion Article

The Controversies Surrounding Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab

Ee Vien Low, Faridah Aryani Md. Yusof

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 334-340
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13322

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Both bevacizumab and ranibizumab are anti-vascular endothelial growth factors used for treatment of AMD. However the use of bevacizumab remains controversial as it was not approved for intravitreal use although there were several head-to-head comparison trial that shows that it was non inferior to ranibizumab. Despite the status of off-label, intravitreal bevacizumab is being used worldwide as it is 30-50 times cheaper than intravitreal ranibizumab. The case of intravitreal bevacizumab illustrates the use of “not-me” drug and different countries responds differently to its use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Distributor Plate Configuration on Pressure Drop in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor

A. E. Ghaly, A. Ergudenler, V. V. Ramakrishnan

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 251-268
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/8240

Aim: To study the effects of distributor plate shape and conical angle on the pressure drop were studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed system.

Methodology: Five distributor plates (flat, concave with 5°, concave with 10°, convex with 5° and convex with 10°) were used in the study. The system was tested at two levels of sand particle size (a fine sand of 198 µm and coarse sand of 536 µm), various bed heights (0.5 D, 1.0 D, 1.5 D and 2.0 Dcm) and various fluidization velocities (1.25, 1.50, 1.75 and 2.00 Umf).

Results: The pressure drop was affected by the shape and the conical angle of distributor plate, sand particle size and bed height. Less than theoretical values of the pressure drop were observed with the 10° concave distributor plate at lower fluidizing gas velocities for all bed heights. A decrease in the angle of convex and an increase in the angle of concave resulted in a decreased pressure drop. Greater values of pressure drop were obtained with larger sand particles than those obtained with small sand particles at all fluidizing velocities and bed heights. For all distributor plates, increasing the bed height increased the pressure drop but decreased the ratio of pressure drop across the distributor to the pressure drop across the bed (ΔPDPB). There was no variation in the pressure drop in the freeboard.

Conclusion: Fluidizing gas velocities higher than 1.25Umf should be used to for a better fluidization, improved mixing and avoiding slugging of the bed.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Epidemiology of Hernias in Tamale, Northern Ghana

Callistus B. Kuubiere, Abass Alhassan, Victor Mogre, Saeed F. Majeed

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 269-274
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/11365

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the associated demographic characteristics of hernia cases seen at the Tania Specialist Hospital in Tamale, Northern Ghana.

Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012 at the Tania Specialist Hospital. All patients admitted into the Tania Specialist Hospital for the repair of any type of hernia were included into the study.

Results: Out of the 1330 hernia patients, 92.9% were males (n=1236) and 90.7% (n=1206) were aged 21-40 years. The highest type of hernia recorded during the period under review were inguinal hernia (29.7%, n=395), incisional hernia (27.1%, n=350), recurrent hernia (20.1%, n=260) and epigastric hernia (20.9%, n=270). The highest incidence of all the types of hernia was recorded in 2011 and 2012. In all types of hernia, over 80% of the patients were aged 21-40 years. The incidence of hernia was 13 times higher in males than in females. Those patients aged 21-40 years had the highest incidence of all types of hernia seen.


Open Access Original Research Article

Aim: The aim of this study was to correlate the nutritional status with bone health of young adult college students of two different communities respectively by anthropometric measures and urinary indices and quantitative ultrasonography.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Human Physiology Laboratory, Tripura Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Hapania, Amtali, Tripura (West) 799130, India between October 2011 to March 2013.

Methodology: This study was undertaken in college students of two different communities, Tribal (n=60; male: 30; female 30) and non-Tribal (n=100; male: 50; female: 50), aged between 18 to 21 years.  Nutritional status was assessed by measuring height, weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), fat-free mass (FFM), muscle mass (MM) and bone health by measuring skeletal mass (SKM) and urinary  indices like calcium, phosphate, creatinine, Ca:Cr ratio and hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio and quantitative ultrasonography (QUS).

Results: Apart from clear observations of significant community and gender variations in anthropometric measurements and indices for assessing nutritional status( MUAC, FFM,MM) and bone health (SKM), prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) was observed more in tribal (25%), than non-tribal (11%) population. A sparse population was observed overweight (tribal 6.67%; non-tribal 8%) and there was no record of obesity. Urinary excretion of markers for bone turnover also revealed significant community and gender variations, and except calcium, no other markers crossed normal reference range. Correlation analyses between anthropometric nutritional markers and urinary bone health markers revealed both positive and negative significant relationships. Regression analyses further revealed strongest association of FFM with SKM explaining 17% to 81% variance. Bone mineral density assessment by QUS diagnosed osteopenia in the studied population irrespective of gender and community.

Conclusion: Results indicate that nutritional status has significant correlation with bone health and nutritional deficiency may cause adverse effect on bone.


Open Access Original Research Article

Academic Goal Orientations and Junior Secondary School Students’ Performance in Home Economics

Comfort I. Usoroh, Imaobong D. Akpan, Nkopuyo A. Effiong

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 289-296
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/12180

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected Academic Goal Orientation (mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance) and Junior Secondary School Students’ Performance in Home Economics in Uyo Educational Zone of Akwa Ibom State.  Two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a survey research design. The population for the study comprised of 3000 Junior Secondary school students in Uyo educational zone. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 250 students as sample for the study. Two instruments were used for data collection; a structured questionnaire tagged Academic Goal Orientation Questionnaire (AGOQ) and Home Economics Performance Test (HEPT). Data obtained was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance and students’ performance in Home Economics. Thus, the null hypotheses were rejected. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations have been made.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Infrastructures of the 21st Century City: Informational Cities in Japan as Case Studies

Kaja J. Fietkiewicz, Sandra Pyka, Wolfgang G. Stock

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 297-311
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/12344

There are many theories and concepts aiming at describing and measuring the modern cities in the 21st century: digital city, smart city, creative city, knowledge city or global city–each of them with different infrastructure and diverse components. In the present case we combine all these aspects, quantify and measure them under the concept of the informational city. We are using methods of the information science approach on urban studies, including the ethnographic field study, grounded theory method and further research-based proceedings. While looking for informational cities we evaluate as case studies the advancement of four Japanese cities in regard to various aspects and conclude which of them mostly conforms to the expectations of the 21st century city.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Simultaneous Determination of Some Water-Soluble Vitamins in Gum of Acacia nilotica by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Sarra Bouazizi, Bassem Jamoussi, Dalila Bousta

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 312-318
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/10976

A rapid, simple and precise method by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) has been developed for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins as thiamine(B1), nicotinamide(B3), panthotenic(B5), pyridoxine(B6) and biotin(B8) in gum of Acacia nilotica using enzymatic hydrolysis. The method uses a C18 column (4.6×150 mm, 5µm). Mobile phase such as methanol 0.1M, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (pH = 2.5), (10:90 v/v) is found most suitable for rapid separation and identification of this water –soluble vitamins. Good linearity was observed between the concentration of analytes and peak area (r = 0.9999). Each vitamin was quantitatively determined at its maximum wavelength. Recovery percentages ranged from 97% to 99%.


Open Access Original Research Article

Health and Nutritional Status of College Students of Different Ethnic Backgrounds of Tripura, a North-East State of India

Sutapa Datta, Subhra Chattopadhyay, Asankur Sekhar Das, Chandan Mitra

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 319-333
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13951

Aims: To assess nutritional status and general health of college students of two diverse socio cultural origins with the help of anthropometric measures and social risk scores.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Human Physiology Laboratory, Tripura Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Hapania, Amtali, Tripura (West) 799130, India between October 2011 to March 2013.

Methodology: We included subjects from two diverse socio cultural origin, Group A (Tribal n=132; male: 69; Female 63) and Group B (non-Tribal: n=498; Male: 258; Female: 240), aged 18 to 21 years. Measurements included were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index ( FMI), muscle mass (MM) and fat-free mass (FFM). Social risk score also was determined.

Results: There was a significant group and gender-based variation in anthropometric measurements and indices. Based on BMI, the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) was more in tribal group (20.45%), compared to non-tribal group (7.43%). MUAC showed similar trend and proportion in CED as a comparative measure with BMI, except minor exception. Students of both the groups were found in poor health status (Rohrer index [RI] scores: Tribal males [33.33%] and non-tribal males [26.74%]). However, females of both the groups were found less affected. Overall, tribes (24.25%) were seen more in subnormal health state, compared to non-tribes (17.27%). Both RI and social risk scores further indicated that, on a comparative basis, irrespective of gender, tribes are more vulnerable population. Analyses also have shown that, irrespective of groups and genders, FFMI was the best predictor to assess health status (RI) of the studied population.

Conclusion: Tribes are more in subnormal nutritional and health conditions, compared to non-tribes. Local health authorities should implement nutritional assessment programs for managing the burden of under nutrition and poor health status.


Open Access Original Research Article

Some Trace Metals Pollution of Black Sea Anchovy from Crimean Coastal Region (Black Sea and Azov Sea)

Irina I. Rudneva, Dmitri A. Boldyrev, Ekaterina N. Skuratovskaya, Andrei V. Zav’yalov

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 341-349
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/10756

Aims: The  aim  of the  present study was  to detect  the level of three heavy metals cooper, zinc and lead in tissues of commercial fish species  anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in  six regions  of Crimean coastal waters (Black Sea and  Azov  Sea),  and to compare them with  the values obtained in  various geographical locations of  the  world.

Study Design: Fish  samples were collected from  commercial catches  at  six locations in  Black Sea along  Crimean coastal area (near the  riparian  cities Evpatoria, Saky, Sevastopol, Jalta, Alushta, Sudak and  Feodosia)  and  at  the  region  of  Arabat Pointer in Azov  Sea  in  spring-summer period 2011.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental determinations were  provided in  the Crimean Experimental Station National Ukrainian Scientific Center of Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine,   and  in  the Institute  of  the  Biology  of  the  Southern  Seas.

Methodology: Chemical analysis was determined in 5 samples containing 10-15 organisms, assays run in triplicate. Concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were measured by atomic absorption method used spectrophotometer S-600 (Ukraine).

Results: Copper level varied from 0.34 to 4.5 mg• kg-1 wet weight, zinc concentration ranged between 0.73 and 4.15 mg• kg-1 wet weight and lead level varied between 0.003 and 3.42 mg• kg-1 wet weight.  The concentration of examined trace elements was below than the maximum levels permitted by Ukraine State Standards with the exception of lead, which level was significantly higher in four fish samples collected in western part of Crimea.

Conclusion:  The results indicate that the heavy metal pollution of anchovy was higher in western regions of Crimea coastal waters than that in eastern part. The knowledge of differences between concentration of trace metals level in anchovy from examined locations are very important  for human health because this fish   is highly distributed commercial species in  Black Sea  and Azov Sea.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Two Warm up Protocol on Vertical Jump Performance in Mini-volleyball Players

Ali Fattahi, Heydar Sadeghi, Mahdi Rezaei, Mohsen Einanloo

Advances in Research, Volume 3, Issue 3, Page 350-356
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13895

Warm-up exercises are necessary before performing of explosive movement in any sporting event especially to improve performance as well as injury prevention in forceful jumping. The aim of this study was to compare effects of routine static stretch and newly dynamic movement as warm up protocols on jumping performance. Fifty seven male mini volleyball players (10.84±1.24yrs) participated in warm up exercise protocol in 2 consecutive weeks, three sessions for static stretch warm up and three other sessions for dynamic warm up every other nonconsecutive day. Static stretch consists of seven movements hold 12 seconds; relaxing 8 seconds and 12 seconds for each lower limb. Dynamic warm up includes 12 movements lasting 8 minutes. After each movement vertical jump test was performed, while Paired t test used to determine differences between two applied warm up exercise protocols. Significant increase has shown in vertical jump following dynamic warm up comparing to static stretch (p<0.05). Due to results, performing dynamic movement may be more effective to prior to perform high power and explosive skills such as jumping.