Open Access Short Research Article

Contact Analysis for Coupling of Plates and Screws in Fracture Fixation of Cortical Bone

Gaffar Gailani, Rachid Moumni, Malek Brahimi

Advances in Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 94-101
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/14189

Internal fixation is a common treatment for bone fracture. Bone fracture occurs due to different reasons such as motor vehicle accidents, falling,…etc. The treatment is performed by fixing plate and screws to the fracture site. Lack of stability of the implants (plates and screws) may lead to delay in healing or failure of treatment. Micro-motion between the implant and the bone may cause formation of fibrous tissue around the screw which will lead to implant loosening. On the other hands, firm fixing of the conventional implants (Dynamic Compression Plates) may lead to delay resorption and delay in healing. Recently, Locked Compression Plates were introduced to get over the shortcomings of the existing Dynamic Plates. In Locked Plates the hole and screw head were threaded to provide more stability and reduce contact with the bone surface. In this communication we conducted computational analysis to compare the stability of both sets of implants. Results have revealed that Locked Plates provide more stable fixation and resistance to micro-motion. However, stress shielding might occur which will delay healing. Future designs of the Locked Plates can focus on improving stability and reducing damage to blood supply which will shorten the healing period. Computational analysis (finite element analysis) can be effectively used to guide these future designs. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between E3 SUMO-protein Ligase NSE2 (NSMCE2) with Ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA and AMPDA Enzymes in Patients with Atherosclerosis

Wesen Adel Mehdi, Nagham A. Jasim

Advances in Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 79-86
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/14224

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the level of the E3 SUMO-Protein Ligase (NSMCE2) and their relationship to Ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA and AMPDA enzymes in patients with atherosclerosis compared to control group.

Method: Five ml of venous blood was drawn from sixty patients of atherosclerosis ranging between (40-75) years old and patients with diabetes mellitus and kidney diseases were excluded .The activity in U/L for Ecto-5'-nucleotidase, AMPDA and level of NSMCE2 (pg/ml)  were measured in serum from control and patients with atherosclerosis.

Results: The present study included 60 males patients with atherosclerosis and 30 matched males healthy individuals as control group. The present study showed that mean levels of sera Ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA and AMPDA activities and NSMCE2 have a highly significantly increase (p<0.0001) in patients compared to control group.

Conclusion: The measurement of E3 SUMO-Protein Ligase (NSMCE2) and the activates of   Ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA and AMPDA enzymes U/L in patients with atherosclerosis was highly significant elevated, compared to control group. This is normally expressed in vascular endothelial cells and in a broad range of immune cells. Therefore, adenosine formed by extracellular nucleotide catabolism on endothelial cells and immune cells appears to be an important endogenous modulator of arteriogenesis and key transcription factor involved in inflammatory responses.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methionine and Organic Acid on Apparent Nutrient Utilization and Gut Morphology of Broiler Chicken

A. O. Adeniji, A. D. Ologhobo, O. A. Adebiyi, I. O. Adejumo

Advances in Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 87-93
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13840

Aim: Nutrient metabolisability and gut morphological response of broiler birds fed diets supplemented with methionine and methionine hydoxy analogue with or without formic acid were investigated in a 56-day feeding trial.

Methodology: One hundred and ninety-two one-day old unsexed Arbor Acre broilers were used. The birds were brooded for 7 days after which they were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental treatments were: diet 1: basal diet + DL-methionine without formic acid, diet 2: basal diet + DL-methionine (0.12%) with 0.8% formic acid, diet 3: basal diet + methionine hydroxyl analogue without formic acid, diet 4: basal diet + methionine hydroxyl analogue with formic acid.

Experimental Design: The design of the experiment was a completely randomised design in a 2X2 factorial arrangement.

Results: Formic acid supplementation had a significant (P<0.05) influence on apparent nutrient metabolisability of all the nutrients assessed. Apparent nutrient metabolisability was significantly (p<0.05) improved in birds fed with diet 2 relative to birds fed other diets. There were significant (P<0.05) differences observed in the wall thickness, villus height, villus width and crypt depth of the birds. Formic acid supplementation significantly (P<0.05) reduced gut wall thickness and increased villus height, villus width and crypt depth in birds fed with diet 4. The interaction between formic acid and thetype of sulphur amino acid sources was significant for wall thickness, crypt depth, villus height and villus width (P<0.0069 to 0.0488) of the jejunum.

Conclusion: The gut parameters were better for birds fed with diet 2. Likewise birds fed with diet 4 showed better gut morphology. Formic acid supplementation improved apparent nutrient digestibility and gut morphology of broiler chickens used in the study.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Marine Sport Tourism Development on Island – A Case Study of Jibei in Penghu, Taiwan

Li Chu Chang Liao, Tsung Min Yang, Hsiao Ming Chang

Advances in Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 102-113
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/15031

Marine sport tourism in Taiwan has become one of the popular intensive tours in recent years. However, related research has focused on the economic and social issues, which overlooks factors contributing to the successful development of sport tourism. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the success factors for the development of the island's marine-sport tourism using Jibei Island as an object for investigation. Through qualitative methods of investigation, we found that a successful development of marine-sport tourism for an island is attributes to: 1. the coupling of natural environment and a variety of water activities; 2. the infrastructures such as transportation of island; 3. the image of the island; and 4. the support from the government. The findings in this study not only provide local government with recommendations for the development of tourism industry, but also serve as references for relevant future research.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Ecological Footprint at Educational Institute Scale (A Case of an Iranian High School)

K. Habibi, A. Rahimi, B. Shahmoradi, H. Abdi

Advances in Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 114-121
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/13042

Aim: Ecological Footprint Assessment (EFA) is one of the suitable indices helping decision makers and authorities in general and environmental scientists in particular in assessing sustainable development. Schools are one of the educational institutes, where measuring this index can help in giving clear picture of the footprint of such micro-level places. We used descriptive-analysis method to assess the ecological footprint of one of the main high schools of Sanandaj City, Kurdistan, Iran. Our results indicated that the total ecological footprint of this high school is 65.6 gha, showing 0.164 gha per student (400 students) during 2011-2012 academic year. Comparing the ecological footprint of this school with the international standards showed that the maximum level of footprint belongs to food sector (35.8 gha), followed by transportation (24.4 gha). In order to reduce the footprint and its nearness to the international standard level, some measures have to be taken, for example facilitating and creating bulky transportation such as school service, changing type and composition of food materials of students, renovation or upgrading cooling and heating systems. These measures would not only result in the long-term sustainability of educational but also would help in environmental sustainability at neighbourhood micro-level and at the city macro-level. We suggested some alternatives, which their application may reduce the ecological footprint of Qasri High School from 65.5 gha to 59 gha, which is very close to the standard footprint rate (58.38 gha) for a high school.


Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring Innovation Culture: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Questionnaire

Ana Muñoz-van den Eynde, Maria Cornejo-Cañamares, Irene Diaz-Garcia, Emilio Muñoz

Advances in Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 122-141
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/15533

Aims: In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the Radiography of Innovation Culture-Multidimensional Questionnaire (RIC-MQ), aimed at studying innovation culture in organizations from the perspective of individuals in addition to taking context into account. It has been considered that innovation culture is essential to enhance the innovation capability of organizations, but studies of innovation culture adopting a holistic approach are scarce. Those identified in the literature tend to pay little attention to the influence of individuals within the organization or to social context.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The questionnaire was sent to a sample of workers from three Spanish organizations (a public research organization, a public university and a private healthcare company) to gather data and analyse RIC-MQ psychometric properties. Data were collected between October 2011 and November 2011.

Methodology: Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were used to assess reliability, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to validate the RIC-MQ.

Results: The RIC-MQ includes three dimensions: general, organizational and individual. Reliability, construct validity and discriminant validity results are satisfactory. The three dimensions structure has been confirmed and 15 factors have been identified.

Conclusion: Results provide evidence supporting the adequacy of the questionnaire to measure innovation culture as a three dimensional construct from an individual perspective in a sample of Spanish workers.


Open Access Review Article

Literature Survey of Flue Gas Treatment Unit for Packaged Gasoline Generators

Sunday Okerekehe Okpighe

Advances in Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 67-78
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2015/12401

A literature survey of Flue Gas Treatment Unit for Packaged Gasoline Generators is reported. Due to shortfall in power supply from National Grid of most developing nations, most businesses relied on package generators for electrical power supply for their economic activities. Flue gases containing CO, CO2, SO2 and NOX were being released into the environment by these fossil fired package generators. The CO is known to be detrimental to health of living beings and at the same time ozone layer depletive. On the other hand, the CO2 has been contributing to the green house effects. These militating dangers/risks arising from the usage of these package generators strongly stimulated this study. The global position on legislation, regulation and control of the emission of flue gases into the atmosphere has been articulated. Results of in-depth investigations by researchers into the methods/techniques of capturing CO, CO2, SO2 and NOX from the flue gases have been highlighted. This study shows that incorporating the capturing techniques for CO, CO2, SO2 and NOX into the design and construction of the package gasoline generators will no doubt go a long way in keeping our environment healthy, safe and secured.