Background: WHO recently recommended the collection of two sputum smears and that these specimens can be collected in an accelerated scheme called front-loaded or same-day microscopy. We studied the feasibility of same day sputum smear microscopy in rural refugee settlement in South Western Uganda.
Methods: Sputum specimens were collected from tuberculosis suspects at two health centers in Nakivale refugee settlement in South Western Uganda. Patients submitted 2 spot samples one hour apart and an early morning sample was submitted the next day. All samples were stained by Ziehl-Nielsen stain. Results for the two spot samples were given on day one and the morning sample results were given on day 2. Patients found to have TB were referred for treatment on reception of their results.
Results: Of the 316 TB suspects, 190(60.1%) were males and 126(39.9%) were females. The mean age of the TB suspects was 40 years. Overall smear positivity rate was 46/316(15.0%). Of the 40 smear positive TB cases, 38(95.0%) were positive on the spot1, 35 (92.5%), on spot 2 while 31(85.0%) were positive on the early morning specimen. Only one TB suspect had negative sport1 sample that was positive with spot2 and early morning. Three TB suspects who had positive spot1 result did not return with spot2 sample. Six (15%) patients with a positive spot 1 did not bring the early morning sample. Though the bacillary load differed on the spot2 and morning samples the difference was not significant p-value > 0.05, all samples that were positive on morning sample were also positive on the spot 2. There was no association between HIV and TB infection.
Conclusion: Same day smear microscopy for diagnosing tuberculosis is feasible in a rural setup by examining two spot samples.
Google Earth images were widely used to remotely collect qualitative as well as quantitative data about rivers. The use of this free source of data to explore the Nile River was discussed in this paper. The route of the two branches namely Rasheed and Domiat were defined on Google earth. The Latitude and Longitude of selected points on the route were downloaded and plotted. The Haversine formula and the law of Cosines were used to calculate the length of each branch. The error in the calculations was evaluated. The height of each branch was plotted and discussed. Studying images of the Nile river could be used in measuring observations which helps to acquire quantitative as well as qualitative data about the water in the river with minimum costs.
Aim: Acetylated potato starch (APS) is commercially available and used widely in the food industries. It is imperative to study the physical and functional properties of acetylated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar Tropical Manihot Series (TMS) 30572 and industrial starches for possible substitution/ replacement of expensive APS in food system.
Study Design: The properties of acetylated cassava starches were compared with those of commercially available acetylated potato starch (APS) and native cassava starches.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was performed in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure Nigeria from June 2011 to January 2013.
Methodology: Industrial starch and starch extracted from cassava TMS 30572 were acetylated by standard procedure. The acetylated starches were analyzed for the physical as well as functional properties.
Results: The yields after acetylation ranged between 96-98% and 80-93% for TMS 30572 and industrial starches, respectively. Acetylated cassava starches showed improved physical and functional properties over the native cassava starch and these increased with increasing concentration of acetic anhydride in the reaction medium. At >2.50% acetylation, starch concentration of 5.5% had the same hot paste viscosity of 1500 cPa.s with commercial APS at 5% concentration. Also at 2.50% acetylation the starch was stable until the third freeze-thaw cycles and exhibited better stability than commercial APS.
Conclusion: Acetylation improved the yield of starch from cassava during processing. The industrial starch showed higher degree of acetylation than TMS 30572 starch under the same experimental condition. Acetylated cassava starches (at >2.50-2.70% acetylation) has improved functional properties and lesser tendency towards retrogradation thus could be a potential replacement to the more expensive APS as ingredient in food system.
Aims: To find out the major occupational health issues among the goldsmiths and its’ causative factors, The study also aims to identify the study populations’ health risks in line with their work type, and to estimate the proportion of the goldsmiths vulnerable to those health risks.
Study Design: It is a survey research.
Place and Duration of Study: Goldsmith clusters at Tantibazar in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between March 2011 and June 2014.
Methodology: Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among 2 focus groups in Tantibazar goldsmith cluster. Each of the groups consisted of 20 respondents. Besides, library search and internet browsing have also been done.
Results: Almost 70% of the goldsmiths work in soldering unit followed by 12% in polishing unit, 6% in cutting unit, 4% in refining unit, 3% in enameling unit and setting unit each, and 2% in designing unit. Many hazardous substances are used in these working units, such as Cd, HNO3, H2SO4. The dusts and fumes generated from these hazardous substances pose various health hazards to the artisans. About 92% goldsmiths are exposed to cold fever, weakness and suffocation, 86% are exposed to jaundice/liver problems and diarrhea each, 84% are exposed to headache and 80% are exposed to dehydration as immediate health hazards. Among the long term health impacts, about 94% goldsmiths are exposed to vision problem, 93% are exposed to back pain, 92% are exposed to respiratory diseases, 86% have health vulnerability to constipation and piles problems, and 16% and 12% goldsmiths are exposed to dermatitis and dental carries respectively.
Conclusion: The gold jewelry manufacturing process followed in Tantibazar involve a number of health hazards. But the goldsmiths are not getting proper attention regarding improving their environmental health issues. The responsible authority also does not provide any facility in respect to their health issues.
The quality of tomographic images formed from diffracting waves deteriorated due to the limitations in capturing evanescent waves. The waves carried detailed information about the body being imaged. Metamaterials were being recently used to amplify and focus evanescent waves. Here, the physical characteristics of a superlens made out of a metamaterial slab were studied. A detailed derivation of the equations for wave propagation inside the metamaterial was shown. The effect of changing the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity and permeability of a superlens were examined. The dependence of the cut-off frequency of a superlens on the thickness of the slab was discussed. Suitable physical dimensions of a superlens were proposed for cross sectional imaging of Aluminum rods. Simulations were done to test the validity of the proposed solution. Simulations showed that a metamaterial slab of Silver could be successfully used in imaging two rods.
Aims: Despite the presence of natural antioxidants contained in palm oil, it is still susceptible to quality deteriorations if not properly stored. This study therefore evaluates the storage stability of vitamins A and E in palm oil in four prominent packaging materials (metal cans, white plastic bottles, glass bottles and pet bottles) used in Nigeria and under three storage conditions [(refrigeration (5ºC), closed cupboard (27ºC) and direct sunlight (35ºC)].
Study Design: Freshly produced palm oil was filled in metal cans, white plastic bottles, glass bottles and pet bottles and stored in open, direct sunlight (35±1ºC), closed wooden cupboard (27±1ºC) and a refrigerator (5±1ºC) for a period of 120 days The samples were stored in a 4 (packaging materials) x 3 (Temperature) factorial arrangement making 12 treatments for each analysis sampled every 30 days for a period of 120 days. Vitamins A and E contents of palm oil samples were determined at 30 days intervals using ultraviolet spectrometer and high Performance Liquid Chromatography, respectively. Data values of triplicate determinations of vitamins A and E contents obtained from analysis were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean values were separated using Duncan New Multiple Range (DNMR) test using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. The rates of changes in the Vitamins A and E contents over the storage period of 120 days were also determined using Linear Regression analysis.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between January, 2012 and December 2013.
Methodology: Palm oil filled into the four different packaging materials was stored in the three storage conditions for a period of 120 days. Vitamins A and E contents of palm oil samples were determined at 30 days intervals using ultraviolet spectrometer and high Performance Liquid Chromatography, respectively. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the statistical significant differences in the packaging materials and the storage conditions and the interactions between them. Mean values of vitamin A and vitamin E of different packaging methods and storage conditions were separated by Duncan New Multiple Range (DNMR) test to indicate their levels of significant differences. Linear Regression Analysis was also performed to determine the rates of changes in the vitamin A and E with time during storage.
Results: The vitamins A and E content of the samples stored in open, direct sunlight were virtually lost at the end of the storage period. For samples stored in sunlight, the vitamin A values in metal cans decreased by 97.45%, in white plastic bottle by 92.19%, in glass bottle by 92.46% and in pet bottle by 93.13% while vitamins E also decreased by 92.31%, 61.54%, 75.48% and 82.05%, respectively. Samples stored at room temperature suffered a higher amount of losses compared to the refrigerated samples. The refrigerated samples recorded only a minimal amount of loss. For the storage in both the sunlight and the dark cupboard and storage under refrigerating temperature of 5ºC, the order of preference for the packaging materials was white plastic bottle > glass bottle > pet bottle > metal can.
Conclusion: The results obtained from this study have demonstrated that packaging palm oil in white plastic bottle is the best method of preserving palm oil under refrigerating condition and lacquered metal under sunlight and dark cupboard. It has also shown that vitamins A and E degrade faster when palm oil is stored under sunlight and totally unfit for human consumption at the end of the storage period hence, palm oil should be stored in cold, dry places to limit their losses of antioxidant components.
Aims: This paper explores the properties of single layer particleboard produced from bamboo wastes and branches.
Experimental: Three types of single layer particleboard i.e., branch-waste mixed particleboard (WBPB), bamboo branch particleboard (BPB) and bamboo wastes (shavings obtained during planning operation of bamboo) particleboard (WPB) were manufactured with 15% urea formaldehyde (UF) resin. Physical and mechanical properties of the manufactured particleboards were evaluated according to the ASTM D-1037 standard.
Results: Results showed that the physical properties i.e., density, moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA), thickness swelling (TS), linear expansion (LE) and mechanical properties i.e. modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of bamboo branch-waste mixed particleboard (WBPB) was better than bamboo branch particle board (BPB) and bamboo wastes particle board (WPB). It was found that the density of BPB, WPB and WBPB were 742, 846 and 1024 kg/m3, respectively. Thickness swellings of BPB, WPB and WBPB after 24 hours of immersion were 32.33, 19.6 and 16.3%, respectively. Water absorption rate of BPB, WPB and WBPB particleboards were 81, 64.3 and 39.8%, respectively. Modulus of rupture of BPB, WPB and WBPB were 16.8, 18 and 21.6 N/mm2, respectively.
Conclusion: All these three types of particleboard followed the American National Standard ANSI A208.1 requirements for physical and mechanical properties of particleboard.