Open Access Clinical Practice Article
Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a contagious neoplasm which is common among sexually active dogs, where sexual behaviour is not under control. There are several options for treatment of the tumor and the chemotherapy is the most commonly used. In our study, we investigated the effect of weekly vincristine sulfate administration with a dose of 0,025 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks in 2 bitches with naturally occurring TVT. Tumors totally regressed in both of the cases and no recurrence was observed. Side effects as depression and decrease in appetite were observed in one of the dogs and leucopenia was observed in both of the bitches for three weeks after the first treatment. In conclusion, although the small numbers of the patients, results of our investigation confirm that vincristine sulfate is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of TVT in dogs.
Open Access Short communication
Aims: An easy, sensitive and inexpensive volumetric method for the determination of rosuvastatin calcium in raw material has been developed.
Methodology: The titrimetric method is based on the reaction of calcium with a solution of Disodium ethylene diaminotetraacetate (EDTA) - Magnesium 0.01 M. Hydroxynaphtol blue was used as indicator. It changes from pink to blue at pH = 10 at the end point of the titration. The method was validated for linearity, precision and accuracy, following the suggestions of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH).
Results: The linearity of the volumetric method was determined by analysis of six replicates at 80%, 100% and 120% and three replicates at 90% and 110% of analyte concentration. The calibration curve was linear, with r = 0.9998. Assay method precision was evaluated by carrying out six independent assays of bulk drug and the intermediate precision was also verified using different analyst and different day in the same laboratory. Accuracy (mean recovery 99.0%) and precision were found to be satisfactory.
Conclusion: The proposed method can be used for quality control assay of rosuvastatin calcium in bulk drug.
Open Access Original Research Article
Arsenic contamination and its prevalence in the environmental component appeared as a social disaster. This study focused on arsenic exposure among the local people and how lead to their daily life despite of severe arsenic poisoning in the community. A number of social factors was considered to be a key indicator to investigate social issues and prospects. This qualitative research was performed to make better understanding on arsenic exposure and social instability through intensively taking interview and focus group discussion. As regards observational findings, a number peoples identified who is carried arsenicosis symptoms, it might be the result of food chain contamination and frequently consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater. Consequently, its long term result is negatively impacted on their existing social life and values. Result showed that, arsenicosis patients were apparently neglected by the group peoples who believe, it might be the result of any previous curse or sin. In the community, superstitious and social ostracism problems turned into a social hazards for an arsenicosis patient which is directly insisted daily life style, social status, access and deny to participate any social meeting. Surprisingly it was considered that almost all the communities openly or ultimately and unconsciously arsenic affected owing to continuous taking contaminated food and gradually leads to worsen health condition. It might be the results of absence situational and social factors. Simultaneously, worsen socioeconomic condition may act as predominant factor to exaggerate social phenomenon. In addition, cause finding and problem identification would be a helpful way to better understanding about arsenic exposure. However, this study tried to find out a thematic outline in environmental contamination and social crisis using some factors like social perception, respondent attitudes, behaviors, economical condition and knowledge to follow a combine approach. Its novelty might be reflected through knowledge shearing and practices.
Open Access Original Research Article
When reservoir pressure decreases in gas condensate reservoirs, there is a compositional change which makes the system difficult to handle. This type of system requires an Equation of State (EOS) to ensure proper fluid characterization so that the Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT) behavior of the reservoir fluid can be well understood. High quality and accurate PVT data will help reservoir engineers to predict the behavior of reservoir fluids and facilitate simulation studies. The aim of this study is to determine what to do on reservoir fluid before carrying out reservoir modeling.
PVT data were obtained from a reservoir fluid in the Niger Delta which was sampled following standard procedures. Then the laboratory experiments were critically examined to ensure accuracy, consistency and validity before PVT analysis. Finally, the results from the PVT experiments were imported into PVT software and subsequently in a reservoir simulator for simulation studies. These processes generate the EOS model for reservoir modeling of gas condensate reservoirs.
The mass balance test, Hoffman plot and CCE/CVD (Constant Composition Expansion and Constant Volume Depletion) comparison plots were used to validate PVT data. From these tests, the consistencies of the data were ascertained and the composition added up to 100%. The pattern of the CCE/CVD comparison plot was observed to reflect that less liquid dropout was experienced later in the depletion process of the CVD experiment than in the CCE experiment. PVT validation checks help to confirm the Gas oil ratio of the system and the richness of the gas condensate fluid.
It is imperative to obtain representative reservoir fluid samples and carry out reliable laboratory experiments to generate PVT data for fluid characterization. PVT fluid characterization and consistency checks will ensure that accurate results are obtained from reservoir simulation models leading to proper reservoir management.
Open Access Original Research Article
To ensure successful learning and advanced achievement, subject-specific interest is essential. While many factors and strategies may be important in building a student’s interest in mathematics, variables such as the type of basic schools attended, parents’ interest in mathematics as well as the fear of imposed on students by their basic school teachers have not be completely investigated in the Ghanaian education system. Towards this goal, the current paper addresses the effect of parent interest, the type of basic school attended, the fear imposed by basic school mathematics teacher on a student’s interest in mathematics. Using descriptive and inferential statistical methods, data collected from 260 post senior high school student through structured questionnaires was analyzed. The study found that parent interest and value for mathematics significantly influenced students interest and joy in solving mathematical problems. Moreover, we also observed that the fear imposed by basic school mathematics teachers was found to significantly influence students’ interest. The study further found that the type of basic school attended and gender are factors that do not influence students’ interest in mathematics. In addition to concluding that a student’s interest is influenced by both parent interest and the fear of basic school mathematics teacher, the study also showed that the type of basic school attended and gender does not affect the students’ interest in mathematics.