Open Access Method Article

On a Class of Universal Probability Spaces

Mahkame Megan Khoshyaran

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24109

Aims/ Objectives: The objective of this paper is to introduce a class of probability spaces that
include several exceptions introduced by Dieudonn´e [3], Anderson and Jessen [4], and Doob and
Jessen [5]. The class of alternative probability space is called the Universal Probability Space
(UPS). The UPS consists of Borel sets, elements of which are tensors. It is proven that indeed
such tensor sets represent a more general probability space. Given the properties of tensors, it
is shown that the exceptions introduced by Dieudonn´ e, Anderson, Jessen, and Doob are merely
special events that can occur in the UPS.
Study Design: Methodological study.
Place and Duration of Study: Research Unit of Economics Traffic Clinic - ETC, Paris, France,
between June 2015 and September 2015.
Methodology: Borel tensor sets were used in constructing a more general probability space.
Results: Some basic definitions and properties of Borel tensor sets in the context of the UPS are
given. It is shown that the UPS has a defined metric. Some elements of the UPS are given such
as conditional probability and independence property.
Conclusion: The UPS is a more generalized probability space.

Open Access Original Research Article

Time-Series Modeling and Short Term Prediction of Annual Temperature Trend on Coast Libya Using the Box-Jenkins ARIMA Model

E. S. El-Mallah, S. G. Elsharkawy

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24175

Aims: In this study a time series modeling was developed to predict the annual warming trend at coast Libya in the second decade of the 21st century using ARIMA model, and performing an evaluation for the results significance.

Study Design: Utilizing Box-Jenkins method through, the stage of identification, parameter estimation and diagnosis, finally, a forecast of the annual surface temperature trend on Libya in the second decade of the 21st century was assembled, together with an evaluation of the significance of the predicted warming trend.

Place and Duration of Study: Annual surface absolute temperature (ASAT) from 16 stations belonging to the coast of Libya during the period of (1892-2010) was used.

Results: The most optimum two prediction models obtained for the above data, are non-seasonal linear trend model ARIMA (3-1-2) and quadratic trend model ARIMA (3-2-3). We found that the forecasted values followed the upward trend present in the data and the pattern of results almost followed the pattern predicted with a correlation value of approximately 80% for both models. According to linear Trend model, an increase in temperature of 0.12°C/decade and according to quadratic model, an increase of 0.53°C/decade had been predicted until the year 2020. This increase in temperature is the same as what was predicted by the United Nations (from 1.3°C to 5.8°C between the year 1990 and 2100).

Conclusion: The two models, individually, produced the best overall performance in making short-term (10-year) predictions of annual surface absolute temperature in Libya. It can be used as a supplemental tool for environmental planning and decision making concerned with other environmental models.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Mathematical Model on the Dynamics of Student-Lecturer-Sex on Campuses

B. A. Obeng, G. O. Fosu, E. Akweittey

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/20355

Mathematical models for disease spread are mostly based on differential equations with an in-built
threshold that determines the behaviour of the system. This study investigates student-lecturer-sex
(SELEX) on campus by an epidemiological model. The dynamics of these activities among female
students and male lecturers are analyzed by the usual Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR)
model. The model suggests that, admitting and recruitment of new members play a significant
role in reduction of SELEX on campus. It was revealed that, the basic reproductive numbers are
not enough to predict whether or not SELEX will persist on university campus, but minimizing
the admitting and recruitment of infected students and lecturers reduces the spread of the

Open Access Original Research Article

Drivers of Deforestation in the Miombo Woodlands and Their Impacts on the Environment

Nkolola Barbara, Nyasa Linda, Chilekana Ngonga

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/23831

One fundamental concern of decision-makers is focused on the need to foster sustainable economic development. In order to achieve this, there arises a need to engage in comprehensive development planning. The basic aim of development plans is to reduce the risk and uncertainty inherent in economic activity by making a range of projections about the future. This is especially important in the Miombo woodlands (Northern Zambia) where a causal combination of poverty and resource depletion translates into an urgent need of sustainable development planning. Unfortunately, very little has been done to analyze the likely future environmental and social impacts in this economy. Therefore, the overall purpose of this research is to unravel and contribute meaningful information to decision-making processes. This paper addressed the research question about the drivers of deforestation in the Miombo woodlands and their environmental and social impacts by a quantitative research approach. Based on percentage of forest cover and the rate of forest area change, a study area was picked and questionnaires were administered. Results show that 45,000 kilometer squared of forests have been lost to unsustainable agro practices. Further, data collected from 300 farmers shows that the major controls of deforestation in Northern Zambia are lack of farmer support services and population growth. These results can be taken into consideration by decision-makers to avert the losses associated with deforestation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk of Residual Aluminum in Treated Waters with Aluminum Sulphate

Bachir Meghzili, Brakchi Souad, Azzouz Abdelkrim

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24059

Waters treatment by aluminum sulphate is the most used process in waters treatment to remove unwanted microorganisms. The inorganic coagulants are partially hydrolyzed salts; their dissolution in water depends mainly on this one’s pH. However, aluminum residues may remain after dissolving. In this study, determination of residual aluminum in treated waters is performed by the standard addition method. Treated waters from the treatment station in Skikda’s city contained 210 g / L of residual aluminum for an average dose equal to 40 m /L of aluminum sulphate. The residual aluminum in treated water exceeds WHO standards (200 μg / L), and far from the recommended standards of 100 g / L in all searches. Trials were made with laboratory flocculators under the same conditions. The residual aluminium obtained by the same method, is 182 mg / L, giving 13.33% less than the WHO standards. Another trial was carried out with a dose of 40 mg / L alum. As adjuvant, a bentonite from M'Zila (Algeria) was used with a dose of 3 mg / L. This test helped to reduce the amount of residual aluminum in raw water (20.48%, lower than the recommended standards).

In order to investigate the causes of these excess, trials were made with the laboratory flocculators under the same conditions in that station. The residual aluminum obtained by the same standard addition method, is 182 mg / L (giving 13.33% less than the WHO standards).

The dry residues were characterized by analysis using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX (MEB-EDX) to show the different spectra of the aluminum in the dry residue. The crude bentonite is characterized by the elemental chemical method using X-ray fluorescence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Statistical Techniques for Examination of Piggery Wastewater in Nigeria

B. U. Okoro, N. E. Nwaiwu

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24103

This study presents the results obtained from a comprehensive investigation of pollution indicators of piggery wastewater from a stabilisation pond in Nigeria in a laboratory scale. Experiments were conducted to predict treatment efficiency of the various stabilisation ponds in order to identify best retention time required for optimal treatment to produce effluent of good quality. The observations obtained from the concentration of the pollutants showed that there was significant reduction of pollutants in all the ponds with anaerobic pond generally showing the highest removal rate. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was highest in the facultative pond which could be attributed to algal activities present in pond. Further statistical interpretation of the results was done based on the probability (p) values. All the main effects were found significant (p< 0.05) at the 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 day retention times at 5% confidence level, the interactions between wastewater quality variables were also found to be significant in anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds. Statistical techniques employed for the evaluation and interpretation of large complex data sets used in this study provide a better understanding of wastewater quality and thus assist  in the decision making process during design prototype for the effective management of water resources.

Open Access Review Article

Biotechnological Applications of Galactomannan Matrices: Emphasis on Immobilization of Biomolecules

Priscilla B. S. Albuquerque, Luana C. B. B. Coelho, Maria T. S. Correia, José A. Teixeira, Maria G. Carneiro-da-Cunha

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/23435

Polysaccharides are natural polymers extracted from plants, algae, animals, fungi or obtained via fermentation that can be applied on a wide range of uses, from food to biomedical industries. Galactomannans are polysaccharides mostly extracted from the endosperm of leguminous seeds and responsible to perform functions of energy reservation and hydration. They have singular properties that direct their potential use as films/coatings, gel agents, a part of mixed systems such as hydrogels, emulsion stabilizers, thickeners, and cosmetics. The characterization of galactomannans from conventional and nonconventional sources were reported as capable to produce the broad range of galactomannan matrices (films/membranes, coatings, gels and hydrogels). Matrices based on galactomannans, in addition, were explored as effective supports for immobilization of different functional compounds. The knowledge of the application of galactomannans as films and coatings is still limited compared with those already reported for other polysaccharides; moreover, the some publications brought new insights of the properties and characterization of edible films. The works in which galactomannan films are used as support for immobilization of biomolecules are still scarce, especially in health care. Due to their viscous and elastic properties, galactomannans have been widely investigated in mixed gels containing two or more biopolymers with the aim to improve cohesion, appearance, stability and durability of the gel. Studies involving the use of galactomannans in gels for immobilization of biomolecules have also been developed with the important purpose of evaluating the controlled release of suspensions contained in nanostructures. This review article aimed to approach the most recent literature dealing with galactomannan-based matrices and exposes the main strategies for the immobilization of biomolecules and their potential applications in industry.