Open Access Method Article

A High-p/Low-p Procedure to Improve Recall Memory in Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Cognitive Impairment

Dawn A. Seefeldt, Daniel Houlihan, Jeffrey A. Buchanan

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24580

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of implementing two types of high-probability of naming/low-probability of naming procedures to improve object recall memory in elderly individuals with cognitive impairment. The procedures involved the use of directives for recall compliance with a demonstrated high rate of compliance followed by embedded directives with a demonstrated low rate of recall. Two elderly subjects in states of cognitive decline were used in this demonstration.  Results indicated positive outcomes with both procedures. Recall-based interventions were more effective than recognition-based procedures.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Potential Role of Fructose to Modulate Fibroblast Growth and Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor In vitro

Yu Nagayama, Masako Kawamoto, Kayo Masuko

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25173

Aims: Hyperglycemia has been posited to have an effect on the healing process at the cellular level, particularly on fibroblasts that produce extracellular matrix components including collagen. However, the mechanisms underlying this process have yet to be fully elucidated. In addition, excessive intake of fructose-containing drinks has recently been shown to induce hyperglycemia, and fructose induces metabolic changes that may influence normal wound healing. Therefore, we investigated the effect of fructose on the cellular proliferation of cultured fibroblasts.

Materials and Methods: The murine fibroblastic cell line NIH3T3 was incubated in the DMEM medium with or without the supplementation of either glucose (0.3, 1.4, or 2.8%) or fructose (1.4 or 2.8%) and was analyzed using microscopy, proliferation assays, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the expression levels of type I collagen and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF).

Results: Our results demonstrate that In vitro culture in fructose-supplemented media suppressed fibroblast proliferation. The suppression of the expression levels of CTGF was also observed. Conclusion: These results suggest that fructose represents a dietary factor with a negative effect on wound healing via the modulation of CTGF expression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Properties of Polyfluorinated Phosphorus-containing 1,4-Benzoquinones and 1,4-Naphthoquinones

O. D. Zakharova, L. P. Ovchinnikova, S. I. Zhivetyeva, L. I. Goryunov, V. D. Shteingarts, E. V. Tretyakov, G. A. Nevinsky

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24265

Aim: Synthesis and analysis of antioxidant and antitumor properties of fluorinated phosphorus-containing derivatives of tetrafluoro-1,4-benzoquinone and hexafluoro-1,4-naphthoquinone.

Methodology: All compounds were synthesized by amino- and phosphanodefluorination with corresponding amines and phosphanes. The cytotoxicity of these fluorinated benzoquinones and naphthoquinones was compared using human myeloma and human mammary adenocarcinoma as target tumors, as well as normal mouse fibroblasts cells. Their mutagenic and antioxidant properties in a Salmonella tester strain were also evaluated.

Results: All the benzoquinones suppressed the growth of the two lines of tumor cells at approximately 3.2–90-fold higher concentrations than the naphthoquinones. In addition, the naphthoquinones were universal, while the benzoquinones were selective toward suppression of different tumor cells. At the same time, the benzoquinones and naphthoquinones demonstrated similar antioxidant properties, and protected bacterial cells against spontaneous and H2O2-dependent mutagenesis at comparable concentrations.

Conclusion: All compounds are effective antioxidants and suppress the growth of tumor cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Application of Oyster Shell as Adsorbent in Vegetable Oil Refining

Salawudeen T. Olalekan, Alade A. Olanrewaju, Arinkoola A. Olatunde, Jimoh M. Omolola

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/23709

Aim: The shell of invertebrate such as oyster has a very high potential in removing color pigments and other impurities in water and vegetable oils. However, application of such materials is receiving low attention both in industry and academia. This work studied the effectiveness of oyster shell as adsorbent in vegetable oil refining, in order to utilize its adsorption potential and to control the disposal effects of oyster shell on the environment.

Methodology: Activated and un-activated oyster shells were produced and used as adsorbent in the bleaching process of Palm Kernel Oil (PKO). The micro-structural images of the adsorbents produced were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PKO before and after the bleaching process were monitored and compared. The performance evaluation of the adsorbents was further evaluated using Freundlich and Langmuir adsorptions isotherms.

Results: SEM images showed a clear difference in their morphology, on visual observation. The physicochemical properties after adsorption bleaching showed that the calcined oyster shell has more adsorptive power in its natural form than when activated with H2SO4. A maximum of 96.97 and 94.44 percentage color reductions were achieved for un-activated and activated oyster shells, respectively. K and n values of 0.397 and 0.567 were obtained for the un-activated adsorbents while 12.373 & -0.459 were obtained for the activated adsorbents respectively. The free fatty acid (3.38% of the PKO reduced to 3.37%, 2.21% and 3.22% with the use of crude, uanactivated and activated oyster shells, respectively. Similarly, the iodine value (16.6 mg/g) of the PKO reduced to 16.5, 13.69 and 16.49 mg/g with the use of crude, uanactivated and activated oyster shells, respectively Reduction were also observed in the percentage free fatty acid and iodine value after the adsorption process with both adsorbents but more reduction were noted in the PKO refined with un-activated oyster shell.

Conclusion: Oyster shell can be effectively used as adsorbent in vegetable oil refining. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the oyster shell in color and particulate removal. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Zierone: A Sesquiterpene Ketone from the Essential Oil of Cyperus distans L. (Cyperaceae)

Oladipupo A. Lawal, Isiaka A. Ogunwande, Andy R. Opoku, Adebola O. Oyedeji

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25252

Aims: The study investigates the essential oil obtained from the rhizomes of Cyperus distans collected from different location, and compared the result with previous sample and other reports on the chemical composition of essential oils from several species of the genus Cyperus.

Study Design: Isolation of essential oil from the rhizomes of Cyperus distans and identification of its chemical constituents.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh plant materials of Cyperus distans were collected at full flowering stage from Main road, Vulindlela, along KwaDlangezwa road, opposite University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in October, 2006.

Methodology: Fresh rhizomes of Cyperus distans were hydrodistilled in a Clevenger-type apparatus and the isolated oil analyzed by GC and GC/MS.

Results: Twenty-two constituents were identified, representing over 80.0% of the oil composition. The chemical profile of the oil was very different from the essential oils of several species of the genus Cyperus, with little amount of cyperene (3.1%). The most interesting feature of the oil was the presence of a sesquiterpene ketone, zierone (33.9%). Other significant constituents are caryophyllene oxide (14.2%) and α-cyperone (9.0%).

Conclusion: The chemical pattern of this oil and the previously investigated sample differs greatly, suggesting a chemotype.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rainfall Variability in Sine Saloum River Basin in a Context of Climate Change and Variability

Fatou Rokhaya Doumouya, Vieux Boukhaly Traore, Mamadou Sadio, Hyacinthe Sambou, Alhadj Hisseine Issaka Ali, Amadou Tahirou Diaw, Bienvenu Sambou, Aboubaker Chedikh Beye

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/25349

Drought is one of the most worrying manifestations of variability and change of climate in many West African countries. Due to its threats on human life, socio-economic activities, agricultural productivities, shortage of water, natural resources and environments, the problems related to drought have caught the attention of scientists, researchers and policy makers in recent decades. The aim of this paper is to characterize and analyze climatic events and their impact on water resources, environmental ecosystems and population. For this, we have selected rainfall time series of Sine Saloum river basin at Foundioune’s rain gauge. We have first conducted an exploratory analysis based on the graphic study. So, histograms relating to annual rainfall, monthly rainfall decadal, interannual monthly rainfall and interannual monthly averages, were analyzed separately compared to the corresponding average; this has highlighted the spatial and temporal distribution of intra and inter annual rainfall compared to the average and allowing viewing wet and dry years and months. We have secondly calculated the drought indices such as standardized precipitation index and normal precipitation index to evaluate climate fluctuations, characterize the progression of drought and its degree of intensity. This has also highlighted the deficit years and surplus years. In total, over the 43 years of the study period, we have counted 13 wet years and 20 dry years. We have also noted that 1971 was the wettest year and 2007 the least wet year. Characterization of these 30 deficit years has highlighted 3 categories of drought: mild drought, moderate drought and great drought. It appears from this study that the impacts of drought can be attributed in part to a deficit or erratic rainfall. Analysis of the results has showed the high vulnerability of the watershed to drought. Examination of drought years revealed a higher frequency in space and in the time of light drought. These results are very useful for drought monitoring, evaluation and mitigation.

Open Access Review Article

Electrochemical Biosensing Strategies to Detect Serum Glycobiomarkers

Priscila Marcelino dos Santos Silva, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coel, Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia

Advances in Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2016/24734

Changes in glycosylation profiles have emerged as indicators of diseases. Altered glycans and glycoproteins secreted by pathological tissues are found in human serum and are potential glycobiomarkers for early diagnostic and prognostic of diseases such as inflammation, infection and cancer. To obtain serum samples is a simple procedure and minimally invasive; thus the detection of glycobiomarkers in serum is attractive for clinical applications. Electrochemical biosensors are a friendly strategy for rapid, easy and highly sensitive measuring of glycans and glycoprotein biomarkers. The use of lectins as biorecognition elements in glycobiosensors has provided a specific detection and profiling of glycans linked to glycoproteins. Electrochemical glycobiosensors based on lectin interactions employed to characterize glycan profiles in serum glycoproteins constitute a promising tool in diagnostic and monitoring of diseases.