Open Access Original Research Article

Mobile Phone Usage on Change of Athletes Sleep Behaviour because of COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown in India

W. Vinu, Aranga. Panbilnathan

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i530310

Many researchers during several decades have proved that sleep is a key factor for enhancing performance in sports. Henceforth, this study is to investigate the impact of a mobile phone on changes in athletes sleep behaviour because of COVID-19 lockdown in India. For which, the survey conducted among 550 sports persons representing various Universities (300 male/250 female) across various states of India using simple random sampling technique, and Sleep Quality Assessment (PSQ: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was used to find out the level of sleep disturbance in athletes. The composed data were analysed using a percentile. The results of this study showed that the mobile phone usage during COVID-19 lockdown in India out of 550 athletes’ data was collected in which 6.4 ⸓ of athletes with a score of 4 in the scale were not distracted due to COVID-19 lock down they underwent regular sleeping schedule there was no change in their circadian rhythm, 40.4 ⸓ of athletes with a score of 6 which means there was a high level of distraction in sleep due to COVID-19 lock down and 23⸓ of the athletes suffered a very high level of sleep destruction during COVID-19 lock down. Which showed a changed sleep behaviour of sports persons.

Conclusion and Recommendations: Lack of exercise during COVID-19 lockdown changed the sleep behaviour in athletes. Which made an addiction towards mobile phone usage. This study concludes that regular exercise enhances sleep and also keeps athletes from over usage of mobile phones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxic Potentials of Methamphetamine in Neuroblastoma Cell Line and its Effects on the Mitochondrial Activity

Xolisile Mokoena, Olufemi A. Alamu

Advances in Research, Page 16-26
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i530312

The cytotoxicity potentials of methamphetamine (METH) is presumably associated with oxidative stress induced apoptosis, this study therefore, investigated the toxic potentials of METH in neuroblastoma cells and further determined it effects on the mitochondrial activity.

Human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE (2) cells cultured in DMEM/F12 were used in this study. The cells were treated acutely with methamphetamine (1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL) over 24, and were allowed to recover from METH treatment over 48, 72, and 96 h. Cell viability study was done with Trypanblue exclusion assay. The cell proliferative characteristics of the neuroblastoma cell line were investigated by constructinga cell proliferation curve. Mitochondrial activity was assessed using the XTT Assay. Statistical analysis were done with Graph Pad prism and significant difference were considered at p<0.001, 0.01 and 0.05.

The result showed normal growth in the untreated neuroblastoma cell over the 96 h of monitoring. Following treatment with METH, significant decrease in cell growth was observed when treated acutely with 5 and 10 µg/mL METH and allowed till 72 and 96 h recovery period. The SK-N-BE (2) treated with increasing concentration of METH showed no significant difference in cell viability over the recovery period from METH exposure. Toxicity of SK-N-BE (2) cells was only observed when treated with 10 µg/mL of METH. Significant decrease in mitochondria activity was observed when the cells were treated with 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL METH and allowed till 72 h recovery.

The result showed that METH is cytotoxic to the SK-N-BE (2) cells and the mechanism of toxicity might be associated with inhibition of mitochondrial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Unraveling the Polarization of Event Centres’ Locational Pattern and Tourism Development in an Emerging City: Evidence from Ado Ekiti

O. O. Ojo, A. A. Shittu, S. A. Ojo

Advances in Research, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i530313

The study examined the relationship between event centres’ locational pattern and tourism development in Ado Ekiti. This is a survey research which involved the use of questionnaire. The data was analysed descriptively and inferentially. Findings from the study revealed that: only few event centres are built in the outskirt of the town. It also showed that event centres are built spacious like hall and are built where it is easily accessible within the residential areas in Ado Ekiti. The study further revealed that tourist finds it more comfortable locating event centres that are well situated. The study also showed that location of event centres have impacts on tourism development in the study area as location play a major role in beautification of the city, comfortability and source of attraction for tourist. The study concluded that increase in event centres has also increased tourism activities in Ado Ekiti. The study recommended that it is necessary to find suitable strategies to source fund for the development of event centres by private and public sectors which will help to facilitate tourism development in the study area. It is also important to note that domestication of the modern methods of building event centre is needed in order to have an attractive event centre which will also enhance the development of tourism in Ado Ekiti among others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using the Pandemic to Accelerate 21st-Century Learning at a Rural University in Zimbabwe

Vusumuzi, Maphosa

Advances in Research, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i530314

This study responds to the disruptive environment in which educational institutions globally find themselves in the COVID-19 lockdown, where remote-based teaching was adapted to ensure continuous learning. Globally, over 90% of learners are affected by the closure of learning institutions. The study evaluates the digital transformation necessitated by the COVID-19 lockdown through the perception of faculty. Despite the rapid technological developments and high adoption of technology-mediated tools in most developed countries, developing countries lag. E-learning adoption has remained low in most developing countries, and this study aims to investigate the acceptance of Moodle at a rural university in Zimbabwe. This quantitative study utilised the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model to explore how the institution used the COVID-19 pandemic as a springboard to accelerate the adoption of virtual learning systems. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate Moodle acceptance in a developing country context using the UTAUT model during a pandemic such as the COVID-19.  An online questionnaire was distributed to 200 faculty members. The results revealed that performance and effort expectancy and the facilitating conditions positively influenced the behavioural intention to use Moodle. However, in contrast, social influence did not positively influence the actual usage of Moodle. Educationists and technologists can use the results of the study to improve e-learning deployment in developing countries. The study also builds on ongoing research on e-learning implementation and evaluation using the UTAUT model. Future studies should be conducted across several institutions and involve students to come up with more generalisable results.

Open Access Review Article

Natural Products: Are They Efficient Alternatives against the Stored Grain Pest Sitophilus zeamais?

Alice Ribeiro Cavalcante, Eva Luana Almeida da Silva, Panait Abu Nidal Alves dos Santos, Hanna Gracie Inez de Freitas Lima, Welton Aaron de Almeida, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Ardilles Juan Carlos Alves dos Santos

Advances in Research, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i530311

Cereal crops strongly contribute with the world economy and because of this the reduction of their productivity may lead to irreparable economic consequences worldwide. The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais is the main pest of maize in the field or during processing, storage and commercialization of grains, also attacking processed food. The population control of S. zeamais uses a restrict panel of synthetic insecticides which are associated with environmental contamination, selection of resistant individuals and toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans and other animals. This scenario has stimulated the search for new insecticides and plant metabolites stand out because of their high degree of biodegradability and more selective toxicity. This work provides a review of the effect of plant compounds on S. zeamais to encourage the use of these ingredients in more ecofriendly strategies for pest control. Plant insecticides can exert their toxicity by ingestion, contact and/or fumigation resulting in damage to the development, survival and reproductive potential of S. zeamais, or may present food deterrent activity, which protects the substrates from the attack by the insects. The data reviewed contribute to consolidate the use of natural products in control of S. zeamais.