Open Access Minireview Article

COVID-19: Why has Africa been “Spared”?

J. A. Mbarga Manga

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i430305

After more than one year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the disaster predicted in Africa by experts has not occurred. The present review aimed to discuss factors which may have played an important role in this low incidence. The analysis of data provided by the WHO database and the ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control) was made. Using explicit reasoning and existing data, the most significant factors were listed and discussed. We found that Africa had the lowest percentage of COVID-19 cases per population (0.33%) and various factors such as rapid reactions, effective preventive measures, demographics, the impact of previous epidemics, genetic and immunity factors may have played an important role in this low incidence of the pandemic in Africa. It appears that Africa is globally less affected. Most of the factors discussed may have played an important role, but the genetic hypothesis and the potential undercount of cases, less studied to date, should be investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Anthracnose Disease of Aloe vera in Bangladesh

Abu Noman Faruq Ahmmed, Md. Al-Amin Islam, Fatema Begum, Salma Sarker

Advances in Research, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i430306

Aims: To identify the causal organisms of anthracnose disease of Aloe vera in Bangladesh and to manage this disease in field condition.

Study Design: The experiment was designed by Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiments were conducted in Natore, Bangladesh and the laboratory experiments were carried out at the Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January, 2017 to December, 2018.

Methodology: The causal organism Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated by tissue plating method and identified based on morphological and cultural characteristics and that was confirmed by pathogenicity test. Infested farmer’s fields were selected in rainy season under natural epiphytic condition to evaluate the efficacy of eleven treatments.

Results: Among the treatments, Bordeaux mixture gave best result against this disease. Moreover, Tilt 250 EC and Folicur 25 EC and Garlic bulb extract showed better effect against the disease than the other treatments. Lime also has moderate effect against anthracnose disease of A. vera. In 2017, after 4th spray, the lowest incidence was recorded in Bordeaux mixture (58.33%) which was statistically identical with Folicur (64.58%), Tilt (64.58%) and Garlic bulb extract (66.67%). Similarly, the lowest disease severity was found in Bordeaux mixture (3.55) followed by Folicur (5.67%), Tilt (6.67%) and Garlic bulb extract (7.67%). Similar result also found in 2018. After 4th spray, the lowest incidence was recorded in Bordeaux mixture (38.58%) which was statistically identical with Lime (41.66%) and Garlic bulb extract (45.83%). Similarly, the lowest disease severity was found in Bordeaux mixture (0.20%) followed by Lime (0.25%) and Garlic bulb extract (0.36%).

Conclusion: Garlic bulb extract could be used as eco-friendly approach. Moreover, use of Bordeaux mixture is better than the traditional use of lime. From chemical pesticides, Tilt 250 EC and Folicur 25 EC could be used for controlling the disease as the last option.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teaching Science Concept with Games: A Case of Naming Inorganic Compounds with IUPAC System in Rivers State, Nigeria

Inibehe S. Etokeren, Olufunso O. Abosede

Advances in Research, Page 16-25
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i430307

Background: This study investigated the effect of games teaching approach on students’ academic performance in IUPAC inorganic nomenclature in Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria.  Quasi-experimental design, specifically pre-test post-test control groups was adopted. The sample comprised 93 Senior Secondary 2 and 3 chemistry students

Methods: The instrument was IUPAC Inorganic Nomenclature Performance Test validated by two Science Education Lecturers and one expert in Measurement and Evolution. The reliability coefficient of 0.87 of the instrument was determined by test-retest method. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions and hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Variance.

Results: There was a significant difference in the performance of students taught IUPAC inorganic nomenclature with games approach and those with lecture method. Students taught with games approach performed significantly better in the performance test than those taught with lecture method. There was no significant gender based difference in performance, however, significant difference based on class level was obtained.  It was recommended among others that, chemistry teachers should incorporate suitable educational games in teaching chemistry and also motivate students towards learning of chemistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Undergraduate Midwifery Students of the University for Development Studies, Ghana

Ruth Nimota Nukpezah, Rita Lariba Alenyorige, Inusah Abdul-Wahab, Felicia Maltiba Asaana, Grace Adinga, Asumah Mubarick Nungbaso, Edem Kojo Dzantor

Advances in Research, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i430308

Background: Against the background of the worldwide harm caused by breast cancer, as well as the benefits of early detection through simple techniques such as breast self-examination, this study investigated the knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among, midwifery undergraduate students of the University for Development Studies, Tamale-Ghana.

Methods: The study is an institutional-based descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted among second-year female students at the Midwifery Department of the University for Development Studies. The data was collected through a pre-tested structured paper based-questionnaire. The data were analyzed descriptively and presented in frequencies, percentages, tables and figure.

Results: The study recruited 100 participants with an age range between 20 and 39 years with the majority within 20-24 years. The overall knowledge score was 73.0%, a majority of the participants indicated practising breast self-examination (81.0%), but with a low practice score of (49.0%). The study found significant associations between practices of breast self-examination, age (p= 0.022) and marital status (p=0.001) of study participants.

Conclusion: The study found high knowledge of breast self-examination with the majority of study participants saying that they practise breast self-examination. However, the overall practices score of breast-self-examination was relatively low. Additional efforts by the directorate of health services at universities including our study setting are needed to increase knowledge and practices of breast self-examination among students, irrespective of their programme of study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Practice of Eye Checks among Medical Doctors in South-East Nigeria

Arinze Anthony Onwuegbuna, Akunne Ijeoma Apakama, Miriam-Benigna Chika Amobi, Emeka Akujuobi Chianakwalam, Chuka Michael Okosa, Ejike Ekene Igboegwu, George Uchenna Eleje

Advances in Research, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i430309

Visual impairment greatly affects one’s quality of life. The number of persons with visual impairment and blindness in the world is on the increase. Eye screening allows for early detection of sight-threatening diseases and timely intervention could be sight-saving. 

Aim: To determine the practice of eye checks and identify the factors that affect periodic eye checks among medical doctors in south-east Nigeria.

Methodology: This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted among practicing medical doctors in private and public hospitals in Anambra State Nigeria, using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Information obtained from the participants included the sociodemographics data, type and duration of practice, presence of any medical and/or ocular condition, family history of eye diseases, history of use of spectacles, practice of eye check and interval of eye check, factors affecting the practice of eye check, and ways of promoting regular eye check. Data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23. Statistical significance was set at p˂0.05. 

Results: One hundred and eighty-seven practicing  medical doctors were interviewed. There were 123 (65.8%) males and 64 (34.2%) females. Their ages ranged from 24 to 80 years, with a mean age of 44.81 ± 12.73 years. The mean duration of professional practice was 18.16 ± 11.9 years. Majority, 124 (66.3%) works in government-owned hospitals. Among the study participants, 93(49.7%) doctors had been diagnosed with different ocular diseases; 99(52.9%) had a family history of ocular problems; 94(50.3%) had used prescription lenses; and 51(27.3%) had medical conditions. One hundred and twelve (59.9%) had undergone at least  eye examinations once, of which 54(48.2%) had their last eye examination over 5 years ago. The prevalence of eye check was 59.9% (95%CI: 52.9 – 66.9%). Eye checks were significantly associated with medical practice of over 20 years (P=0.030), working in a private practice (P=0.001), having eye diseases such as cataract (P=0.006), refractive error (P˂0.001), presbyopia (P˂0.001), and use of prescription spectacles (P˂0.001). ‘Belief of not having eye problems’ and ‘No time’ which accounted for 58.7% and 24.0% respectively were the commonest reasons for not regularly  having eye examinations. 

Conclusion: Poor attitude to periodic eye examinations was seen in medical doctors in south east Nigeria.