Open Access Opinion Article

COVID-19 as a Catalyst for Digital Lifelong Learning and Reskilling

Ileana Hamburg

Advances in Research, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130282

Due to COVID-19 and following social distancing many face-to-face business as well as educational activities have been replaced by digital ones. Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4) to achieve quality education for all and lifelong learning will stagnate. But the radical changes within education due COVID-19 also open the way for new forms of lifelong learning by using e-learning platforms - digital lifelong learning. This paper is based on literature review as well as work of the author within the Study Group Lifelong Learning and projects. It presents first critical skills required in the next years for reskilling and methods and pedagogies that should be included into education and training. Secondly the necessity and advantages of digital lifelong learning during and after COVID-19 pandemic and how Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) will be supported are shortly described. Thirdly how digital lifelong learning methods can be used in entrepreneurship education and some lifelong skills developed within projects worked by the author as well as used methods are discussed. Some conclusions and recommendations are given i.e., entreprene  urship educators should be better trained and critical in their methods and educational agencies should foster digital frameworks for entrepreneurship education. Research studies are necessary to know how entrepreneurship educators have embedded digital lifelong learning into their lessons, including positive and negative experiences, and if exists a correlation between a country level of COVID-19, country economic situation, digitalization and digital lifelong learning/entrepreneurship education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Mechanical Properties of a Porous Material Obtained by Low Replacement of Volcanic Ash by Aluminum Beverage Cans

Bernard Missota Priso Dickson, Claudine Mawe Noussi, Louise Ndongo Ebongue, Joseph Dika Manga

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130279

This study focuses on the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of a porous material based on a mixture of powder (Volcanic ash /Aluminum Beverage Cans) and a solution of phosphoric acid. Volcanic ash (VA) use was collected in one of the quarries of Mandjo (Cameroon coastal region), crushed, then characterized by XRF, DRX, FTIR and named MaJ. The various polymers obtained are called MaJ0, MaJ2.5, MaJ5, MaJ7.5 and MaJ10 according to the mass content of the additions of the powder from the aluminum beverage cans (ABCs). The physical and mechanical properties of the synthetic products were evaluated by determining the apparent porosity, bulk density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results of this study show that the partial replacement of the powder of VA by that of ABC leads to a reduction in the compressive strength (5.9 - 0.8 MPa) and bulk density (2.56 – 1.32 g/cm3) of the polymers obtained. On the other hand, apparent porosity, water absorption and pore formation within the polymers increases with addition of the powder from the beverage cans. All of these results allow us to agree that the ABCs powder can be used as a blowing agent during the synthesis of phosphate inorganic polymers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of β-carotene and α-tocopherol Content in Selected Fresh and Dry Vegetables in Butula in Busia County

Rachel Nambafu, Sauda Swaleh, Hudson Nyambaka

Advances in Research, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130281

The study involved the determination of β-carotene and α-tocopherol content in selected fresh and dry vegetables (amaranthus, cowpea leaves, nightshade, slender leaf, pumpkin leaves and frying spider) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) procedure. Fresh blanched vegetables contained high levels of β-carotene; 4000-9700µg/100g and α-tocopherol levels; 3000-7360µg/100g (WW). The solar dried vegetables contained β- carotene levels ranging from 572 to 854µg g-1 dry weight (DW) and α-tocopherol levels ranging from 281 to 673µg g-1 (DW). Solar dried vegetables contained significantly lower (P<0.05) amounts of β-carotene and α-tocopherol which were moderately bioavailable when mixed in good proportion to meet Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamins A and E; which are 750µg retinol equivalent/day and 8mg/day respectively. The results will provide nutritional information on the indigenous vegetables grown in Butula in Busia County.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recombinant Protein rP21 from Trypanosoma cruzi has Effect on Inflammation, Angiogenesis and Fibrogenesis in Skin Wound Model C57BL/6 Mouse

Jeranice Silva Barbosa, Francyelle Borges Rosa de Moura, Bruno Antonio Ferreira, Flávia Alves Martins, Elusca Helena Muniz, José Augusto Leoncio Gomide, Cláudio Vieira da Silva, Daniele Lisboa Ribeiro, Fernanda de Assis Araújo, Tatiana Carla Tomiosso

Advances in Research, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130285

Aims: Recombinant proteins rP2 has demonstrated biological activity in inflammation by acting on the recruitment of leukocytes and by inducing phagocytosis, also modulating the processes of angiogenesis and fibrogenesis in different experimental models. In this study we evaluated the effects of the recombinant protein rP21 from Trypanosama cruzi in cutaneous wounds.

Study Design: The wounds were induced on the back of mice and treated with rP21 at 1 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL concentration, for 3 and 7 days.

Study Location and Duration: Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Animal Breeding Network and Rodents of the Federal University of Uberlândia, between February 2015 and February 2016.

Methodology: The contraction time of wound, inflammatory cell activities (neutrophils and macrophages), angiogenesis and local collagen density were evaluated.

Sample: Wound induction was performed on 64 male BALB / c mice approximately 9 weeks old.

Results: Wounds treated with rP21 showed less closure time, in addition to exhibiting greater neutrophil activity in the initial phasis, which was reduced simultaneously with the increased macrophage activity. The rP21 also performed pro-angiogenic and pro-fibrogenic activity in this study model.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate for the first time the biological potential of rP21 in accelerating skin tissue repair.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Condition Assessment of the Profile and Non-Structural Factors of the Buildings in the University of Eastern Philippines

Ric L. Gonzaga

Advances in Research, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130286

This study discusses on the condition assessment of the profile and non-structural factors of the buildings in the University of Eastern Philippines was undertaken to determine the level of functionality of the building as perceived by the end users, to find out the serviceability of the buildings structure, and to assess the profile and non-structural factors of the buildings in the University of Eastern Philippines. The study utilized ocular/visual inspection, data and documents review, applying the instrument made by Coronilli [1], survey questionnaire as perceived by the end users, and the American Concrete Institute (ACI) guidelines on the condition of the selected buildings in the University of Eastern Philippines-Main Campus. Cracking of concrete are classified into structural and non-structural cracks. Non-structural cracking was observed in the buildings inspected and the College of Nursing is the most critical building in terms of cracks of the building. Furthermore, College of Science obtained 3.07 was perceived as most functional building according to the end users. The school buildings which are in need of repair is the College of Nursing buildings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Academic Entrepreneurship of Technological Universities and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Abolaji D. Dada, Tomola M. Obamuyi, Olalekan A. Jesuleye

Advances in Research, Page 49-65
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130287

Universities are recognised as important sources of knowledge for critical innovative performance of industries through commercialisation of their Research and Development (R&D) outputs otherwise called Academic entrepreneurship. This paper examines the approaches and extent of Academic entrepreneurship of the Federal Universities of Technology in pursuit of sustainable development in Nigeria. The study adopted survey technique with population of all the lecturers in the Universities. A sample size of 528 researchers/lecturers were drawn from the rank of Senior Lecturer to Professor in 16 relevant Departments of the Federal Universities of Technology, Akure (FUTA), Owerri (FUTO) and Minna (FUTM) with a response rate of 67.07%. Descriptive statistics such as percentage and mean; and regression analysis as inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. The result of analysis revealed that a multiple of R&D outputs generated by the reseachers are academic publications (100.0%), copyrights (12.2%), industrial designs (11.40%), patents registered in Nigeria (4.60%), patents registered outside Nigeria (1.6%). Only 20.95% of the researchers claimed to have commercialised their R&D outputs through outright sales of R&D outputs (76.67%), sales of patents (18.33%); and joint venture with industries (8.33%). The regression analysis of data revealed that the academic entrepreneurial and innovative performance of the researchers were influenced by access to research fund (β=36.49, p ≤ 0.01), R&D and innovation incentives (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), government policy implementations (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), infrastructure and research facilities (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), business technical support services (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.01), industrial patronages (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), industrial partnerships and collaborations (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05) entrepreneurial drive of the researchers (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), field of research (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05); and business advisory services (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05). All the variables contributed 29.74% (R2 = 0.2974) to the academic entrepreneurial and innovative behaviours of the researchers. The study also showed that the contributions of the academic entrepreneurship to sustainable development are improved product/process quality (67.32%), utilisation of local raw material (61.97%), eco-innovation (60.73%), product diversification (54.81%), research-industry partnership (49.05%), increased production capacity (47.22%); and generation of new employment (44.18%). The paper concluded that, there is a marginal improvement in the academic entrepreneurship for sustainable development in Nigeria. However, the need for policy intervention to encourage greater and adequate R&D funding support by government and private organisations is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constructivism Learning Approaches: Assessment of Student’s Participation and Approaches to Teaching of Mathematics in Selected Colleges of Education in Ghana

Emmanuel Adobah, Christopher Yarkwah, Peter Anayitime

Advances in Research, Page 66-80
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130288

The study focused on use of Constructivism learning approaches to assess formative assessment practices of Mathematics tutors in selected Colleges of Education in Ashanti and Bono Region in Ghana. The study adopted Convergent Parallel research design to guide the study.  A sample of 56 Mathematics tutors were sampled through census study. Questionnaire, interview guide and observation checklist were used to collect data from the participants. The study revealed that tutors ensured students participation in the lesson by students asking questions for clarification, writing notes for future reference, taking part in class exercises and participation in group work. It was concluded that the study has brought to the light that tutors ensured students participation in mathematics class using different methods or approaches. This may due to tutors attend professional development to improve their teaching strategies as well as mathematics is concerned.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Control Methods for Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsum & Nakai) in The Gambia

Lamin S. Darboe, Enoch Adjei Osekre

Advances in Research, Page 81-91
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130289

Commercial production of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai) is increasing in The Gambia, but tephritid fruit flies present a huge challenge to its production. To avoid severe losses, watermelon growers often resort to indiscriminate use of pesticides to manage the pest. Field studies were conducted at two sites (Faraba and Site 3) in the West Coast Region of The Gambia to evaluate two environmentally friendly options (Success Appat (GF-120) and Cocoa Butter Cream) for management of fruit flies on the crop. Dimethoate insecticide, the farmers’ preferred choice, was used as a chemical check and untreated control plots were also maintained. The field plots were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and the treatments were replicated three times. The results of the study showed that, even though three species of fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Dacus vertebratus Bezzi and Zeugodacus cucurbitae Coquillett were collected at both study sites, only D. vertebratus infested watermelon fruits. Both Success Appat (GF-120) and Cocoa Butter Cream reduced watermelon fruit infestation and, generally, provided comparable protection as the check (Dimethoate) to watermelon fruits against fruit flies and therefore would be suitable replacements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Levels of Stress among Retired Civil Servants as Correlate of Their Adjustment Patterns in Anambra State, Nigeria

K. A. Agha, C. A. Nwankwo

Advances in Research, Page 92-99
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130291

Aims: The study determined the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of retired civil servants, the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of male retired civil servants, as well as the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of female retired civil servants in Anambra state, Nigeria. 

Study Design:  The research design was a correlation survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Anambra state secretariat office, March 2010 to February 2020.

Methodology: The multistage sampling procedure was used to select a sample size of 513 retired civil servants from a population of 1500 retired civil servants in Anambra state (220 male and 252 female) (Source: Anambra state secretariat office, personal/accounts department, 2019). Levels of stress (LOS) and adjustment patterns questionnaires (APQ) were used to collect data which was administered through direct delivery approach. The validity of the questionnaires was carried out by three experts. The reliability coefficient for the levels of stress questionnaire (LSQ) was 0.78, while the reliability coefficient for adjustment pattern questionnaire was 0.85. Research questions 1, 2 and 3 were answered using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r). The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test of correlation.

Results: Findings from the study revealed among others that; the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of retired civil servants is high and positive (r=0.661/n=472), while the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns based on gender of retired civil servants is positively high for male (r=0.703/n=220), and moderately positive for female retired civil servants (r=0.577/n=252). Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that male and female retired civil servants should be encouraged to engage in meaningful activities that will reduce their stress levels. Also, the federal government should look into disbursement of funds and the payment of retired civil servants, the prioritizing of retirees’ payment of pension and gratuities can promote this process. Through this, retired civil servants will meet up financial obligations of their families, and in turn reduce the level of stress they undergo.

Conclusion: There is a high positive correlation between levels of stress and their adjustment patterns, it was also found that a high positive correlation between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of male and female retired civil servants in Anambra state. Furthermore, a statistically significant relationship was found between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of retired civil servants.

Open Access Original Research Article

FactSage Modelling of Pb and Ni Speciation in Surface Water from Woji Creek, Rivers State, Nigeria

Millicent U. Ibezim-Ezeani, Owhonda C. Ihunwo

Advances in Research, Page 100-110
DOI: 10.9734/air/2021/v22i130292

The present study is designed to use FactSage version 7.3 to simulate and predict the ionic speciation of lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in surface water sampled from Woji creek in Rivers State, Nigeria. Along the 3 km stretch (stations 1 to 5) of Woji creek, in-situ records were taken for temperature, pH and electrode potential (Eh); surface water samples to be assessed for Pb and Ni were collected in sterile bottles. Along the creek, surface water Eh is in the order: station 2 > station 4 > station 5 > station 3 = station 1, with mean value of Eh as 140 ± 20 mV. Surface water pH was close to neutral, and in line with: station 4 > station 2 > station 5 > station 1 > station 3; with 6.81 ± 0.13 as the mean value of pH. The trend of temperature values was recorded as: station 1 > station 2 = station 3 = station 4 > station 5; with the mean value deduced to be 25.6 ± 0.4. Mean concentration of Pb and Ni across the creek were 0.92 ± 0.27 mg/l and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg/l respectively. Pb species exists predominantly in the forms: Pb6(OH)84+(aq) (45%), Pb4(OH)44+(aq) (45%). Other forms of Pb present in the surface water are PbO(s) (5%), PbO2(s) (4%) and Pb2+(aq) (1%). NiO(s) had the highest proportion of Ni in the surface water (67%), followed by Ni(OH)2(s) (30%) and Ni2+(aq) (3%). The predicted metallic species could possibly be sorbet to particulates; thereby increase their chances of bioavailability and subsequent ingestion by fishes and other aquatic organisms. This will in turn influence their bioaccumulation via food chain and increase the tendency of risk impact on man and aquatic ecosystem.