Open Access Short Research Article

Development of a Real-time Micro-controller Based Watering System

A. I. Olateju, M. A. Sodunke, T. T. Abatan, O. O. Alagbe

Advances in Research, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230283

The developed system consists of a solenoid valve and water pump which are directly linked to a microcontroller (ATMEGA-328PU) unit through a transistor -network based relay switching unit. A soil moisture sensor linked to the soil senses the dryness and wetness of the soil. The microcontroller and soil moisture sensor utilizes a 5V power supply unit given through a regulated supply via a regulator called LM7805.A 12V power supply units activates the normally open units of the relay linked to the solenoid valve and the pump. Whenever the dryness of the soil is sensed, the microcontroller decodes and sends an instruction to the solenoid valve to open and the water pump to start driving the water which is sprinkled through the sprinkler. The performance of the system has been evaluated and the response time is fast.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Phytochemical Properties of Pachira aquatica Seed Grown in Nigeria

Afolayan S. Sunday, Igbum, O. Gillian, Igoli, O. John, Salawu R. Adenike, Afolabi A. Adewale, Enenche E. Daniel

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230275

The present study investigated the nutritional and phytochemical properties of seeds oils and flours from Pachira aquatica seed cultivated in Nigeria. Proximate composition and phytochemical composition were determined by standard methods while mineral content of the seed flours and oil was determined using Thermo Scientific iCAP 6200 Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) and Agilent 7900 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The oil which was extracted using Soxhlet extraction method had a yield of 44.43%. The proximate composition of the flour gave carbohydrate 18.12%; moisture 9.74%; protein 19.90%; ash 4.11%; fat 44.43; fibre 3.70%; while phytochemicals showed that phenol was 4.90 mg/100 g; Tannins 0.76 mg/100g; flavonoids 0.68 mg/100 g; glycosides 17.54%; saponins 6.03% and alkaloids 10.68%. Macro-element concentrations from the seed oil and seed flour respectively were 63.55 and 10611.74 mg/Kg K; 22.38 and 628.44 mg/Kg Mg; 67.55 and 4007.86 mg/Kg P; 52.65 and 1387.00 mg/Kg Ca; 17.95 and 35.23 mg/Kg Na. Micro-elements were 4.18 mg/Kg and 24.59 mg/Kg Cu; 4.43 mg/Kg and 40.16 mg/Kg Fe; 1.50 and 9.61 mg/Kg Mn; 2.92 mg/Kg and 25.68 mg/Kg Zn; 2.74 mg/Kg and 15.40 mg/Kg Al; 0.82 ( mg/Kg103) and 2.27 ( mg/Kg103) Ni; 1.11 ( mg/Kg103) and 3.30 (mg/Kg103); 3.55 (mg/Kg103) and 17.19 (mg/Kg103) B; 0.20 (mg/Kg103) and 0.40 ( mg/Kg103) Mo; 0.01 (mg/Kg103) and 0.03 (mg/Kg103) Se.

Toxic elements recorded 0.17 and 0.85 µg/Kg Cr; 0.18 and 0.23 µg/Kg Co; 0.01 and 0.01 µg/Kg As; 0.01 and 0.02 µg/Kg Cd; and 0.09 and 0.11 µg/Kg Pb for the seed oil and seed flour respectively. The investigation showed that Pachira aquatica seed is safe and nutritious for domestic purposes and industrial applications. The energy value indicates that the seed is a good alternative source of energy and could be taken when energy given food is required as it falls within the recommended energy dietary allowances especially for children.  The bioactive properties of Pachira aquatica seed shows that it has medicinal potential worth exploring for pharmacological purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Instability Analysis of Groundnut Price of Major Markets in Saurashtra Region of Gujarat State

P. R. Vekariya, A. S. Dudhat, M. S. Shitap, D. V. Patel

Advances in Research, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230276

The present study was carried out by using time series data of price from 1998 to 2018, to compare the price variation, to measure the price instability of major domestic groundnut markets of Saurashtra region of Gujarat state i.e. Rajkot, Junagadh, Amreli and Gondal. Data were collected from the registers maintained in the respective Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs). The price variation had been compared by using descriptive statistics in which Range and standard deviation indicated wide variation in the price level of all the markets as well as markets have positively skewed (γ1 > 0) and mesokurtic (β2 ~ 0) distribution. The price instability based on trend model was measured. Fitting of trend model is done by regressing the variable under consideration on chronological time period. Estimates of fitted cubic trend model for all the markets were significant. Higher instability was observed for Gondal market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pandemic COVID -19 Stress and its Management to Households in Raipur City, India

Saumya Mishra

Advances in Research, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230277

Whole world is affected by Pandemic Covid-19 and it is very critical period for all of us. Due to Pandemic COVID-19, we all got fear and anxiety and result is STRESS, even we can say it is a Pandemic Stress. Impact of Stress in our body is very bad and our physical and mental condition imbalanced. So researcher finds in the paper, that Pandemic stress management in households of Raipur city (CG, India). The data was collected by online questionnaire method, from the 100 respondents of 20-65 year age group, surveyed from  Raipur city. The result found by the research that mostly respondents have job stress due to Pandemic covid-19 and affect of this pandemic stress, respondents got mood swings on family members in irritable condition of lockdown period whereas mostly respondents enjoyed lockdown early period as like holiday but increased period of lockdown respondents caused stress due to no movement while and grocery related problem. Respondents got serious effect on mental and physical problem specially due to pandemic. Respondents got fear of covid virus and Headache. Respondents control their stress by spending time with family and respondents learn new things in lockdown period to get rid of from stress. Over all, we found that due to pandemic, respondents got stress by job and they also got some physical and mental problems, but most of the respondents tried to overcome their stress by spending time with family, meditation and learn new things.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Rights of the Senior Citizens in Bangladesh: Political, Administrative and Economic Challenges

Md. Zahid Hossain, S. M. Akram Ullah, A. K. M. Mahmudul Haque

Advances in Research, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230278

Human rights are the essential rights to all for their proper living and proper amplification of the qualities of human personality. These common rights are recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and also incorporated in the constitution of Bangladesh. But in some cases, these rights are violated in many ways. This study is an attempt to depict the causes and challenges for which the senior citizens cannot enjoy these rights properly. Its finding presents the political, administrative and economic challenges of human rights of the elderly people. Study sample of this research consisted of 60 respondents divided into three categories such as old home, general and key respondents. They were both male and female. This study has been conducted on the basis of primary and secondary sources of data collected through face to face interview and content analysis techniques. The finding revealed that a number of challenges and hostilities cumber the senior citizens in the way of their enjoying human rights with satisfaction. 48% of the senior citizens who belong to lower economic class earn their livelihood by begging. Political challenges like insufficient laws, inadequate national economy, corruption and nepotism; administrative challenges like lack of old home, lack of distinct institutions; and the poverty are responsible for this situation. This study recommends that raising moralities and consciousness, creating proper laws and their proper enforcement, establishing old homes, resistant social movement against all sorts of corruption can play an important role to prevent human rights violation of the senior citizens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Climate Change on Maize Productivity: Panel Data Analysis

Parthasarathi Gurusamy, Balasubramanian Rudrasamy

Advances in Research, Page 41-45
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230280

Aim: The maize is widely grown all parts of the world and it is consumed by all people. This paper studies the impact of climate variability on yield of maize crop in Tamil Nadu using Panel regression analysis.     

Study Design: Rainfall (max and min), Temperature (max and min) and yield details were collected from the Indian Meteorological Department and crop production reports respectively used for analysis. 

Place and Duration: Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: Panel data model was used to estimate crop production functions.

Results and Conclusion: The study focused on the impact of climate variability on yield of maize crop in Tamil Nadu using Panel regression analysis. The high rainfall leads to The effect of NEM rainfall on maize yield is dependent on the level of NEM temperature and vice-versa. This is probably because of the fact that in most of the districts in Tamil Nadu, maize is grown as a rainfed crop in north-east monsoon season with lower temperature and hence increase in temperature together with good amount of rainfall would lead to higher yield of maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Buying Practices of Homemakers through Cashless Transaction

. Ekta, Manju Mehta, Binoo Sehgal

Advances in Research, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230284

In digital payments, payer and payee both use digital modes to send and receive money. It is also called electronic payment. The consumer perception of digital payment has a positive impact on adoption in digital payment. Digital payments refer to electronic consumer transactions, which include payments for goods and services that are made over the internet, mobile payments at point-of-sale (POS) via smartphone applications (apps), and peer-to-peer transfers between private users. The Government also wants a cashless society. It is beneficial in reducing corruption, reducing cost of printing currency and in reducing cost of cash holding. Electronic transactions history and trail can easily be traced back and this would greatly help the economy in eradication of black money and also provide better convenience to the people. The present study was conducted in two districts i.e. Hisar and Bhiwani of Haryana state with objectives: (i) to identify the level of mass media exposure (ii) to assess the buying practices of working and non-working homemakers through a cashless economy. Two wards each were randomly selected from both district headquarter. From each selected wards 50 homemakers having their own bank account were selected purposively through snowball technique. 100 working &100 non-working homemakers were selected thus, total 200 homemakers were selected. A pretested interview schedule was used to collect data. The results showed that 45.00% of working respondents and 71.00% of non-working respondents had medium level of mass media exposure. All the respondents were buying milk & milk products daily, followed by 67.5% respondents were buying fruits and vegetables daily while 42.5% respondents were using public transport services daily.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Print Media on Student’s Academic Performance of Varanasi City, India

Minakshi Gautam, Diksha Gautam, Indira Bishnoi

Advances in Research, Page 62-69
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230290

The print media have assumed an essential role in our students’ daily lives. Print media has demonstrated an intense effect on students/school-going children. Print media is not necessary to have negative impact to children but also has a positive value to them. This study investigates that print media helpful in the academic performance of students selected from two different (one public and one private) schools of Varanasi city using a self-structured questionnaire as a tool for obtaining data while frequencies distribution and percentages of data were conducted to know comprehensively about data. It targeted 120 students between 11 to 19 years age group and find out that the print media helpful for their academic performance and the study also recorded the student’s subject stream, access print media sources, helpful in their academic achievements, encourage students to do something new, innovative, creative and different with their academic projects and assignments and got help from the print media sources. The result of the study revealed that cent percent of the selected students’ for the study were accessed print media sources by both public and private schools students. The majority of the students from both schools were encouraged by print media to do new and innovative things with their academic projects and assignments and also the majority of the student stated that print media sources were helpful in their academic performance in most of the cases. So, it was concluded from this study that printed sources are still prefered first in compare comparison to electronic mediums. Print media sources are useful in their academics because it covers so many educational and informative issues.