Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey of Avian Fauna in Kabale Municipality, South Western Uganda

Sarah Nachuha, Fortunate Twagiramaria

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130264

Collection of data on avifaunal diversity is a crucial component for monitoring the effects of habitat changes on biodiversity. A rapid cross sectional survey to document common bird species present in Kabale municipality was conducted over a period of 3 months. Birds were categorized into families and the Shannon–Weaver (H') diversity index and the abundance of all the species was calculated. A total of 1770 bird individuals consisting of 67 species, 34 families were recorded, with an overall species diversity of 3.41. The Grey Crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum) an endangered species and the Woolly–necked Stork (Ciconia episcopus) a vulnerable species were among the species recorded. The relatively high diversity is probably attributed to the presence of trees on farmland areas within the municipality. This combination seems to provide various food sources or nesting and perching grounds for the birds. Information generated by this study will serve as a benchmark for monitoring of changes in species diversity and composition over time. In addition, the list of birds will be useful to residents of the area and the many ecotourists who visit Kabale town.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Environmental Factors on Successful in vitro Morphogenesis of Madhuca longifolia

Fatima Shirin, Deepti Bhadrawale, Sonam Singh, Shalu Panika, Trilok Gupta

Advances in Research, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130265

Madhuca longifolia is a commercially important tree species commonly known as mahua. The livelihood of large populations of tribal people depends on collection of its flowers and seeds. Almost all the parts of Mahua are utilized in diversified uses like in industry as artificial sweetner, biodiesel, food products, in soap industry etc. In the present study, a successful attempt was made to establish in vitro cultures of Mahua from nodal segments and factors influencing in vitro morphogenesis were evaluated as propagation through seeds and cuttings encounters problems. Axillary bud break (64.44%) was successfully achieved by culturing nodal segments on Murashige and Skoogs (MS) medium supplemented with 3 mg l-1Benzyladenine (BA) in nodal explants collected during the months ofJuly-September (rainy season).Shoot multiplication with maximum number of shoots, maximum number of leaves and longest shoots was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg l-1 BA when a subculture cycle of 30 days was followed. On MS medium supplemented with 2 mg l-1 Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA), in vitro excised shoots were successfully rooted (55.55%) after 40 days. A two step method was employed for successful hardening of rooted plantlets. Firstly, the plantlets were transferred for one week in 1/2 strength of MS liquid medium. Then, the plantlets were transferred to root trainers containing soilrite soaked with inorganic salts of ½ strength MS medium. The hardened plantlets were acclimatized firstly in a mist chamber and then in polybags in shade house. The present study provides an effective means for in vitro shoot regeneration and plantlet formation through nodal segments of Madhuca longifolia, a commercially important tropical tree with multifarious uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Colloidal Nano Silver for Applications in Nano Medicine

Ignat Ignatov, Christos Drossinakis

Advances in Research, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130266

Colloidal Silver in European Union is food additive. The aim of the study is to show the common effects of colloidal nano silver and electromagnetic fields. The influence on colloidal nano silver with concentration of 30 ppm was studied using the method of Drossinakis in electromagnetic waves in the range of ν=20 -70 Hz. The research was performed with the methods for spectral analyses Nonequilibrium energy spectrum (NES) and Differential nonequilibrium energy spectrum (DNES). The study was performed with research of parameters of pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP). The control sample is the sample with colloidal nano silver. The sample was taken after the influence with electromagnetic fields on the sample with colloidal nano silver.

The effect of electromagnetic fields is connected with increasing of the effects of colloidal nano silver.  There are proofs with differences between samples and control sample with parameters of


Open Access Original Research Article

The Professional Satisfaction of Tunisian Secondary School Teachers after the Deconfinement of the COVID-19 Epidemic

Aymen Hawani, Anis Ben Chikha

Advances in Research, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130267

In Tunisia, as in the rest of the world, the Covid-19 crisis has forced the authorities to suspend classes. More than 2 million pupils and 90 thousand of teachers have been deprived of school. After three months of confinement, authorities say the school year is over except for baccalaureate candidates. Indeed, the resumption of courses for final classes (bac) is set for May 27, 2020. The question of the professional satisfaction of Tunisian secondary school teachers after the DE confinement of the COVID 19 epidemic for teachers during the period of DE confinement seems essential. The objective of this article is to highlight the degree of professional satisfaction perceived by secondary education teachers in the governorate of 'Nabeul' in different subjects (Mathematics, Physics, SVT, French, English ...) in the presence of the stress and anxiety caused by the current situation of the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic and in the presence of the health protocol in schools. (1) Background: Personal satisfaction linked to the professional context was measured using the Austrian questionnaire "Qualität in Schulen", translated into French by the Luxembourg Ministry of Education. (2) Methods: after 3 weeks of resuming the course, during the period from 06/22/2020 to 06/27/2020 Three hundred and sixty (n = 360) questionnaires were sent and two hundred and forty-six (n = 246) questionnaires for processing, hence the return rate is 68.33%, which can be considered satisfactory. (3) Results : secondary teachers demonstrated a high degree of satisfaction at the relational level (students, administrative bodies, colleagues, etc.). Whereas, the teaching aids presented to schools during this period were not satisfactory despite the establishments' desire to remain operational during this period of the resumption of classes. (4) Conclusion: These preliminary results elucidate that the resumption of classes in Tunisia for the final classes (baccalaureate) after a period of confinement due to the emergence of the COVID-19; made it possible to create a specific climate in the high school. Consequently, the teachers showed a high degree of satisfaction at the relational level while they were not satisfied with the level of the didactic means presented to the breasts of the high school.

Open Access Original Research Article

Market Orientation of KVK Adopter Farmers: The Socio-Ecological and Managerial Interpretation

Mrityunjoy Mahato, Arindam Ghosh, S. K. Acharya, Swagata Ghoshal, Debashis Mazumder, Monirul Haque, Amitava Biswas

Advances in Research, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130268

Krishi Vigyan Kendra was established initially to impart training to the different stake holder of the farming community as a method of technology delivery system. As the time passed by this grass root institution has undergone a tremendous change, starting from technology generation, testing, verification and ultimately onwards transmission to the end users for the enhancement of the productivity in particular and for the overall socio- economic development of the rural people in general with its mandated programmes.  The work was conducted with 10 independent variables and one dependent variable-.i.e. Market orientation (y). Purposive as well as simple random techniques were adopted for the study. Among 50 adopted KVK farmers of the selected villages only 22 adopted farmers have been randomly selected and more 22 non adopted farmers and thus altogether 44 farmers have been randomly selected for the study. It is found from the results that cropping intensity plays an important role on market orientation. Cropping intensity determines the cultivated area which contributes to the income and forest coverage of a family on their daily Market orientation. So, far as the management dimension is concern, human resource development through training, planning orientation, market orientation has got tremendous impact almost in every sphere of KVK activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Critical Drinking Habit and Its Implications for Alcoholics in the Family Premises: A Case Study of Punjab (India)

Honey Kumar

Advances in Research, Page 47-59
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130269

Drinking has become a major area of concern in contemporary modern world. It has both positive and negative consequences depending upon the pattern of use of this substance. The present article talks about the negative consequences of critical drinking. In particular, it discusses how critical drinking manifests into different types of problems for the alcoholics, and causes the problem of alcoholism in society. The main objective of this study is to understand how alcoholism ruins the life of alcoholics and the kind of problems they face due to their critical addiction in the family premises. The research question for the present study is to  determine whether alcoholics are the problem creator in society, or they are also victims of their habits? This study is based on primary data collected from 100 alcoholics from different parts of Punjab while keeping in mind the definition of alcoholic. And, in order to   generate the primary data of the present study, the methods like snowballing technique, semi-structured interview schedule, participant observation etc. have been used. The study has found that the alcoholics face multiple social problems, which vary from minor to major,  due to their critical drinking habit. In most of the cases, normal drinking habit turns into critical drinking pattern, which increases the possibility of troubles for alcoholics as well as for others. The study concludes that alcoholics are not merely the troublemakers in society but they are also the victims of their own misfortune. Moreover, these problems further worsen the alcoholics’ drinking habits. Resultantly, this all turns into the vicious circle of excessive drinking and associated problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Healing Waters of Srebrenica in the Function of the Development of Tourism, Agriculture and Economy

Edin Ramić, Ensar Salkić, Besim Salkić

Advances in Research, Page 60-66
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130270

Srebrenica, this small town in the northeastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been described for centuries as a picturesque place, rich in healing waters, ores, and diverse cultural heritage. Today, Srebrenica is a symbol of suffering and suffering, but also of missed opportunities for the renewal of life and economy in this area.

In the work we present, we deal with potentials that can renew life in the Srebrenica area. Thanks to its unique and very abundant natural resources, Srebrenica has been inhabited since ancient times, presumably since the Illyrians. Guber mineral water was used as a medicine for the treatment of skin diseases even before the arrival of the Romans in this area. The first written traces of mineral springs near Srebrenica were made by the Turkish travel writer Evlija Čelebija in the 17th century, traveling through BiH, and the Austro-Hungarians bottled the mineral water of the Spa "Guber" and sold it throughout the monarchy ("Guber-voda"). Mineral water has been bottled and exported since 1887. In 1886, the first scientific research of mineral springs was carried out in the area of the municipality of Srebrenica, when Viennese researchers recorded the existence of 48 mineral springs. Special attention of the Austro-Hungarian researcher prof. Dr. Ernes Ludwig was attracted by water from the source of the Velikog or Crni Guber, whose analysis was an excellent combination of minerals for the treatment of anemia.

In 1956, the Federal Ministry of Health of the SFRY and the Federal Institute of Medicines Commissions from Belgrade declared Crni Guber water a medicine. Thus, Crni Guber water is the only water that has been declared a medicine in the former Yugoslavia.

In the pre-war period, the total annual income of Banja Guber ranged from 1,200,000 to 1,500,000 US dollars. The company operated successfully until the last war in which, due to the war, there was a complete or partial destruction of certain facilities.

The aim of this paper is to determine the potential impact of Srebrenica medicinal water resources on the development of tourism, agriculture and economy.

Development of health tourism, increase of accommodation capacities, integration of agricultural producers and other activities enables rural development. By increasing the number of newly employed workers, household budgets, but also the overall economic development of Srebrenica, water could renew life in this area again.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hierarchy of Covid-19-Related Flu Symptoms According to Sex and Color or Race in Reports of Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Brazil

João Francisco Severo- Santos, Dimítria Dahmer Santos

Advances in Research, Page 67-78
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130271

The COVID-19 is a disease that presents a wide variety of combinations and intensities of symptoms, characteristic of a Flu Syndrome (FS), which can quickly evolve to a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the hierarchy of symptoms of FS in patients with SARS caused by COVID-19 and to develop a prediction model for potential cases based on sex and race. Binary logistic regression modeling was used in 405,419 records selected from the database of the Ministry of Health of Brazil. It was found that men were more affected by the disease, with a 15.5% higher risk than women. They also died more, with a 13.8% and 15% higher risk for all causes and for COVID-19, respectively. The chances of more than one non-white patient dying from all causes ranged from 18.4% to 38.7% and for Covid-19 it ranged from 16.7% to 64.3% according to race. Fever, muscle pain and loss of smell or taste alternate in the first three positions of the symptom hierarchy, according to sex and race. Cough was only relevant for white men and sore throat for black men. Vomiting was only relevant for black women. The best prediction model developed encompassed seven symptoms adjusted for age, sex and race, but was able to explain only 63% of the cases of COVID-19. Possibly racial diversity, and the socioeconomic inequality associated with it, make the challenge of estimating probabilities of infection by COVID-19, based on symptoms, more complicated in Brazil than in other countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hyperlipidic Diet-induced Obesity Increased Proliferative Signals- AR, ERK1/2- on Mice Prostate, Which can be Restored through Physical Training

João Vitor Pereira Leite, Daniela Cristina de Cario Calaça, Pedro Augusto Silva Nogueira, Renata Graciele Zanon, Daniele Lisboa Ribeiro

Advances in Research, Page 79-90
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130272

Aims: To evaluate the effects of hyperlipidic diet on the mouse prostate and also investigate if physical exercise is able to restore such effects.

Methodology: Adult male Swiss mice were fed with a balanced (ND) or hyperlipidic diet (45% saturated fat, HD) for 16 weeks. Half were submitted to a sedentary (NDS and HDS) or exercise routine (swimming- NDE and HDE) for 8 weeks. Then, the prostate was analyzed by immunoreactions (proliferating cell nuclear antigen- PCNA, androgen receptor- AR, and estrogen receptor-ERβ), western blotting (ERK 1/2), and caspase-3 activity.

Results: We found that saturated fat uptake promoted 16% weight gain, increased fat-mass and hyperglycaemia, as well as reduced testosterone levels. In addition, HD atrophied prostate secretory epithelium and stimulated cell proliferation through higher expression of AR and activation of ERK signaling. Additionally, saturated fat reduced prostatic ERβ content. Physical exercise per se promoted an anabolic effect by increasing testosterone and stimulating cell proliferation in the prostate of sedentary animals. Finally, exercise was able to restore the proliferative signals caused by the hyperlipidic diet on prostate.

Conclusion: We suggest that the combination of hyperlipidic diet and sedentary lifestyle could negatively affected some prostate stimulating pathways that could trigger proliferative diseases in mice and physical exercise may be  an interesting strategy to reverse such effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Celebrity Advertisement and Young Voters’ Choice of Political Candidates in Ghana: Looking Through the Lens of Tertiary Students

Rudolph Asomaning, Evans Ababio

Advances in Research, Page 91-101
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130273

The drive to win elections by political candidates has resulted in the employment of marketing tools such as celebrity advertising. Celebrities have been engaged in endorsing various political candidates. The current study sought to investigate the influence of celebrity advertisement on young voters’ choice of political candidates in Ghana. The study employed the quantitative technique through regression statistics to establish the influence. A sample of about 400 students (respondents) was drawn for the study. The results showed that there was weak positive but significant influence of celebrity advertisement on young voters’ choice of political candidates. This indicates that political parties that engage celebrities in advertising for their candidates and brands stand the chance of winning over young voters to vote for their candidates. It is recommended that celebrity advertising should be designed in such a way that it could improve the capacity of creating long lasting impact in the minds of young voters, influencing young voters to better recognize political candidates at voting points as well as influencing recalling of political candidates during national elections. Policies makers should put measures in place to regulate the contents and type of adverts that can be run by celebrities for political parties since most of these adverts are directed to and consumed by young voters.

Open Access Review Article

Can Plant Lectins be Alternatives to Treat Anxiety and Depressive Disorders?

Bárbara Raíssa Ferreira de Lima, Leydianne Leite de Siqueira Patriota, Lidiane Pereira de Albuquerque, Dalila de Brito Marques Ramos, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Michelle Melgarejo da Rosa, Thiago Henrique Napoleão

Advances in Research, Page 102-112
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130274

Depression and anxiety disorder are the most common mental disorders worldwide and their treatments are combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Depression treatment depends largely on a pharmacotherapy that improves the transmission of monoamines in the brain. However, the drugs available have adverse reactions and do not contemplate positively all patients, which stimulates scientific research that seeks new molecules, including from natural sources. Lectins are proteins capable of binding reversibly and non-covalently to specific sugars. For example, it has been reported the antimicrobial, antitumor, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of lectins. The ability of some lectins in modulating nociception and inflammation stimulated studies on the possible effects on processes that share some pathways and molecular agents, like depression and anxiety. Lectins isolated from plants showed antidepressant effects, which were demonstrated to be linked to activation of serotonergic, adrenergic, and dopaminergic systems as well as to inhibition of the glutamatergic system and L-arginine–NO–cGMP pathway. In view of their immunomodulatory properties, it is also suggested that lectins can ameliorate the inflammatory framework associated with depression. Anxiolytic effects were also reported and associated with modulation of GABAergic mechanisms, serotonergic system, and NO pathway. It should be taken in account that some lectins induced depressive-like behavior, associated with an neuroinflammatory action, as well anxiogenic action. Thus, it is important to use combinations of batteries for testing anxiety, depression, despair, and anhedonia behaviors in the studies with lectins. The mechanisms by which lectins exactly modulate depression or anxiety frameworks are still unclear but important windows had already been open by researchers and preclinical studies with lectins have indicated these proteins as candidates for alternative or complementary agents in therapies of depression and anxiety disorder.