Open Access Other: Correction

Corrigendum: On Summing Formulas for Generalized Fibonacci and Gaussian Generalized Fibonacci Numbers

Y¨uksel Soykan

Advances in Research, Page 66-82
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030253

In this paper, closed forms of the summation formulas for generalized Fibonacci and Gaussian generalized Fibonacci numbers are presented. Then, some previous results are recovered as particular cases of the present results. As special cases, we give summation formulas of Fibonacci, Lucas, Pell, Pell-Lucas, Jacobsthal, Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers and Gaussian Fibonacci, Gaussian Lucas, Gaussian Pell, Gaussian Pell-Lucas, Gaussian Jacobsthal, Gaussian Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers.

Open Access Case study

An Efficacy of Treatment Methodologies of Bovine Cutaneous Papillomatosis Using Combined Therapy: A Case Report

R. K. Singh, Naresh Chandra, Ajit Kumar, Yogesh Soni, Govind Kumar Choudhary

Advances in Research, Page 122-126
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030258

Introduction: Bovine papillomatosis (BP) is a chronic contagious proliferative disease of cattle which is characterized by warts or papilloma that occur mostly in cutaneous form and less frequently in mucosal form as exophytic papilloma.

Aims:  The aim of the present study was to see the effect of combined therapeutic approach for the treatment of bovine cutaneous Papillomatosis in animals.

Presentation of Case: A case of bovine papillomatosis in a cow and its treatment with the autogenous vaccine, Auto-hemotherapy, Homeopathic and Allopathic medicines is presented. A four to five years old female Holstein Friesian cross bred cow was presented with signs of various sizes of cauliflower growth and pedunculated cutaneous warts on neck, shoulder and teat having pain, bleeding and interference in milking. On the basis of history and clinical signs it was diagnosed as bovine papillomatosis. The vaccine was prepared from sample collected from older wart growths under aseptic conditions, minced, suspended in normal saline, filtered through muslin cloth and treated with formalin. The animal was treated with a dose of 5 ml subcutaneously and revaccinated at 7 day intervals for four weeks. The animal was also treated with its own blood and repeated once in a week. The animal was treated with homeopathic medicine Thuja-mother tincture and Thuja 200X and allopathic medicine Levamisol at dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day on days 1,3,5,7,9 and 16 by per oral route, single shot of Ivermectin (S/C) @ 200µg/kg body wt .  The animal was recovered completely in six weeks.

Discussion and Conclusion: Since the single treatment strategy is not so effective and recovery is very poor and recurrence is possible. On the basis of our study it is concluded that the combined therapy is suggested for an effective treatment of Bovine cutaneous Papillomatosis.

Open Access Minireview Article

Learning Management Systems through Moodle and Google Classroom for Education

Sempavalan Vasanth, C. S. Sumathi

Advances in Research, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030249

Information and Communication Technologies have become more prevalent in the last few years and has made a great impact on society. Worldwide, a lot of education programs offer new forms of education that are frequently supported by information and communication technology (ICT) to cater to young minds. E-learning in particular has been adopted by educational institutions all over the world and it is being used as a part of “blended learning” where it is incorporated into systems along with traditional classroom learning. Nowadays, it has become more relevant than ever due to the COVID-19 pandemic that the world is facing. Although these systems differ from classroom learning, they allow easy communication among teachers and students at any time necessary and provide an entire repository for students to use. For teachers, it acts as an environment for creating courses, assignments, giving feedback and grading students. In this paper, two such E-learning platforms namely Moodle and Google Classroom are compared and contrasted based on their usability and simplicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inventory Management Practices and Operational Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Ghana

Richard Kofi Opoku, Helen Mawuena Fiati, Gregory Kaku, Joseph Ankomah, Faustina Opoku- Agyemang

Advances in Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030246

Aims: The study examined the effect of different inventory management practices on the operational performance of manufacturing firms in Ghana.

Study Design: The study adopted the descriptive survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted among manufacturing firms within the Accra, Tema and Kumasi metropolises in Ghana between November 2019 and February 2020.

Methodology: The study randomly sampled 152 Procurement and Operations managers and officers from 246 registered manufacturing firms with the Association of Ghana Industries. The manufacturing firms are specifically located within the Accra, Tema and Kumasi metropolises. The study gathered primary data using structured questionnaires of which analysis was done using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools including mean, standard deviation and ordinary least square regression.

Results: Using 114 valid responses, the study found manufacturing firms in Ghana to have high preference for Strategic Supplier Partnership (M=3.63) and Activity Based Costing (M=3.56, whereas they had least preference for Just In Time (M=3.06). The ordinary least square regression analysis showed that all the different inventory management practices: strategic supplier partnership (P=.000), activity based costing (P=.025), vendor managed inventory (P=.008), economic order quantity (P=.19), material resource planning (P=.000) and just in time (P=.009) are significantly and positively associated with operational performance.

Conclusion: The study concluded that inventory management practices especially strategic supplier partnership plays tremendous roles in improving the operational performance levels of manufacturing firms in a developing economy notably Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Toothpastes Containing Fluoride against Clinically Isolated Streptococci mutans

Eze E. Ajaegbu, Calister U. Ezeh, Adaobi J. Dieke, Adaora L. Onuora, Jane I. Ugochukwu

Advances in Research, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030247

Dental caries is one of the prevalent oral diseases which affect all ages. Many chemical substances with antimicrobial properties, are effective against microorganisms causing dental caries. The objective of this study was to check the antimicrobial efficacy of some toothpastes  found in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria more specifically against clinically isolated Streptococci mutans. The antimicrobial efficacy of different brands of toothpastes marketed in Enugu metropolis  was assayed against Streptococci mutans using the agar well diffusion method. The clinical Streptococci mutans used for this study were taken from carious lesions of patients that  attended the clinic at Federal College of Dental Therapy and Technology, Trans Ekulu, Enugu, Nigeria and were isolated and cultivated using traditional laboratory methods. The present  study has shown that toothpaste which contains mint extract as herbal constituent and sodium fluoride had the highest antimicrobial activity, followed by toothpastes containing only sodium monofluorophosphate. Herbal toothpaste with mint can be a safe and effective alternative in the prevention of dental caries.

Open Access Original Research Article

FTIR and UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Derivatization Studies of Artemether

Jane I. Ugochukwu, Eze E. Ajaegbu, Chidinma R. Chukwunwejim, Ikemefuna C. Uzochukwu

Advances in Research, Page 25-31
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030248

This study was aimed at confirmation of the purity and identity of the artemether and development of an ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the assaying of artemether utilizing p-nitroaniline as a derivatizing agent. Melting point and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) methods were used to confirm the purity and identity of the artemether used in the study. The derivatization process was carried out between 100 µg/ml of the artemether and 500 µg/ml of p-nitroaniline in different molarities (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5M) of HCl at 60ºC for 45 mins. The melting point ranged between 86-89ºC and the FTIR determination revealed a band at 3169.978 cm-1 due to O-H stretching vibration and C-H stretching at 2996.039 cm-1. There was no observed difference in wavelength between the p-nitroaniline spectrum and the spectra of the derivatized products in different molarities of HCl. p-nitroaniline may not be a proper derivatization reagent for the assay of artemether in pure or dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cause and Effect Relationship in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes under Temperate Conditions

Mohd Aslam Dar, Noor-ul-Saleem Khuroo, Reyaz-ul-Rouf Mir, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Bilal Ahmad Lone, Farooq A. Sheikh, Umer Rashid Bhat, Parvaze Ahmad Sofi, Sher A. Dar

Advances in Research, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030250

Thirty-five genotypes and 3 varieties of chickpea were undertaken to determine the variability, interrelationship among yield and its components and their primary and secondary impact on seed quantity. The research work performed at FoA, Wadura Sopore, SKUAST-Kashmir in the rabi 2017-18. The treatment differences were statistically highly significant for all the traits along with higher magnitude of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation indicating presence of good amount of variability. The character, plant height showed maximum difference preceding by pod number plant-1, days taken to maturity, 50% flowering, seed yield plant-1, 100 seed weight, number of secondary and primary branches plant-1 and seeds pod-1. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation have been seen maximum in case of seed yield plant-1 preceding by plant height, pod number plant-1, secondary branch number, seeds pod-1 and 100-seed weight. Pod number plant-1, plant height, days to maturity (99%) exhibited maximum heritability (b.s.) then secondary branches plant-1, days to 50% flowering (98%), 100-seed weight, seed yield plant-1 (96%). Seed yield plant-1 showed maximum genetic advance as mean% (54.17) then plant height (50.93) and pods per    plant-1 (50.02). The seed yield plant-1 exhibited significant and positive correlation with pods plant-1, secondary branches plant-1, seeds pod-1 and 100-seed weight. By comprehending path coefficient maximum primary effect shown by pods plant-1 on seed yield plant-1 then seeds pod-1, 100-seed weight, primary branches plant-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytological Assessment of Vaginal Epithelial Cells in Undergraduate Females of Reproductive Age in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria

Adepoju Paul Olusegun, Solaja Anuoluwani Adeola, Adediji Isaac, Nabofa Williams, Adepoju Victoria Feyikemi

Advances in Research, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030251

This study assessed the vaginal epithelial cells and its relationship with the reproductive hormones as a determinant for fertility. 100 students participated in this cross-sectional study. The established approach to the evaluation of ovarian function and endocrine disorders in the woman is based on serial biochemical analyses of hormones, such as estrogen, progesterone, luteinizing hormones and their metabolites. This study analyzed the ratio of parabasal, intermediate and superficial cells in comparison with the presenting hormones. The biochemical analyses can be effectively supplemented by the old-fashioned endometrial biopsies, or studies of endocervical mucus. In addition, the vaginal smear may sometimes provide useful information and has the advantage of being easy to obtain, rapidly evaluated, and inexpensive. Cytology is the study of cells collected by various means through microscopic examination. In the case of humans, the cytologic approach is particularly valuable if laboratories specializing in endocrine analysis are not readily available. The principle of the cytologic hormonal analysis is simple. The degree of maturation of the squamous epithelium of the female genital tract depends on steroid hormones, mainly estrogen. Various factors contribute to the fertility status of a woman. In the case of this study, age, abortion and use of contraceptives are the significant contributing factors (p <0.05, t >1.96).

Open Access Original Research Article

Exposure to Excessive Sound Volume: A Major Challenge in the South-Western Nigeria Church Auditoria

Solomon Ikibe, Olatunbosun Samuel Adekogbe

Advances in Research, Page 54-65
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030252

The study examines the exposure to excessive sound volume as a major challenge to grapple with in church auditoria in South-western Nigeria. This exposure to excessive sound has become a source of noise pollution and it is dangerous to human health. Data for this paper were gathered through participant observation of musical acoustics in worship auditoria using a Virtual Instrument; a Sound Pressure Level mobile application installed on a mobile phone for sound volume measurement. The equivalent noise level using A-weighting was taken for twenty minutes per day, this was observed for the three different worship services at different dates and time in each of the selected church auditoria during each worship service. The LAeq, T, of each musical session was calculated. Findings show that the worshippers are exposed to average noise levels of 90.29 dB (Threshold of Pain) at every worship service which is higher than the recommended 60dB for normal human ear by World Health Organization (WHO). It was also observed that all the selected church auditoria lack appropriate acoustic treatment which led to sound reflections and severe echo. The paper concludes that the culture of noise pollution has become a social phenomenon in the Nigerian society especially, in church auditoria where loud musical sound is arrogated to power and domination of space. This paper recommends that acceptable optimal standards for sound production either in enclosures or in open spaces be emphasized by the Nigerian local, state and federal governments to effectively control noise for human and societal wellbeing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foraging Behaviour of the Black-Headed Heron at Kibimba Rice Scheme, Eastern Uganda

Sarah Nachuha, Polycarp M. Mwima

Advances in Research, Page 83-90
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030254

Variations in the factors affecting prey availability directly impact on the spatial dispersion of foraging birds. The feeding success and efficiency of the Black-headed Heron (Ardea melanocephala) was examined in the different growth stages/phases of paddy rice, namely: Ploughed fields, Phase 1 fields (2 weeks-1 month after sowing) and Harvested fields. Feeding success of the Black-headed Heron varied significantly across the rice growth stage. This variation was explained by a combination of factors such water depth, waterbird abundance, Nearest Neighbor Distance (NND) and food or prey abundance (except amphibian abundance). Statistical analysis were conducted using Genstat Version 8.1 (VSN Intl.2003, in which a General Linear Mixed Model were used to examine the variation in each behavioural measure. Foraging in aggregations on rice paddies seems to be more beneficial to the Black-headed Heron. The closeness to a conspecific had a positive effect on the feeding efficiency of the Black-headed Heron as they foraged on fields with abundant prey (Phase 1) and a negative effect on fields with less abundant prey (Ploughed fields). Generally, the data seem to suggest that there is a functional relationship between the Black-headed Heron, and prey abundance, and the absence of interference competition on rice fields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profile Characteristics of the Dairy Women SHG Members under “Shri Kshethra Dharmasthala Rural Development Project (SKDRP)” in Karnataka

B. Bhanu Prakash, Ritu Chakravarty, K. V. Manjunath

Advances in Research, Page 91-98
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030255

The present study assessed the profile characteristics of dairy women SHG members in Kolar and Bengaluru rural districts of Karnataka during 2017–18 using “ex-post facto” research design. A sample of 120 respondents was selected and data was collected from the respondents by personal interview method using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Results revealed that under Socio-personal profile of the women SHG members, majority of respondents were young having small family size, secondary level of education high level of experience in SHG, more than half not attending any training and most of the respondents following Dairy + Agriculture & allied activities as their occupation. Under Socio-economic profile, majority were small farmers, having small herd size, medium level of milk production, selling milk to dairy cooperatives, having low level of annual income followed by household milk consumption and milk marketing. Under formal sources of communication and information seeking for the women SHG members, majority had accessed information from Veterinary doctor, Extension personnel, KMF officials and SKDRDP officials. Under Informal sources of communication, most of women regularly consulted family members as their main informal sources of communication followed by relatives and friends and neighbours. Finally under mass media sources of communication, most of the respondents regularly accessed television, exhibitions, farm magazine and social media.

Open Access Original Research Article

Self-organization Simulation Applied to Migration across a Peaceful Border

William J. B. Oldham

Advances in Research, Page 99-114
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030256

Self-organization using simple dynamic laws has been applied to migration across a common border between two entities, states or countries. The motion of the migrants and their final positions are presented.  In the system there were two sets of objects. One set is on a side of the boundary. One side, the right side, is considered to be the better entity.  That is it has a good government and the economy is strong.  On the left side the entity is decidedly different with respect to the governance and the economy.  Each side's objects are further divided into two groups.  The two groups are referred to as strong and weak. The strong represent the governance, rich or elite and weak refers to the general population. Initially the objects are randomly distributed in this two dimensional square bounded region, and then allowed to dynamically interact for a number of iterations. The forces among all of the particles as groups can be defined to be attractive or repulsive and can be adjusted to study the resulting configuration from the dynamics. Four experiments were conducted to see how self-organization applies for these scenarios. In Experiment 1 the migration takes place with only the object-to-object forces active. In Experiment 2 the concept of employment was introduced. An unemployed object was allowed to move faster than an employed object thus giving the unemployed greater mobility. The employment rate on right side is considerably higher than on the left side.   Experiment 3 explores changing one of the forces from repelling to attract. Experiment 3 is the same as Experiment 2 except for this and it went for twice as many iterations. Experiment 4 created employment centers on the right side. These centers provided jobs to left side migrants that came close enough to a center. If the left side object got a center job then that migrant did not move for the remainder of the simulation. In Experiments 1 and 2 there was no incentive for a migrant to remain so the migrant traveled back and forth across the border.  In Experiment 4 it was assumed that the job provided incentive for the migrant to remain at a fixed location. Thus clusters of migrants formed around the job centers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Feeding Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) with or without Enzymes on Carcass Characteristics of Indigenous Chicken

Ashim Kumar Saikia, Robin Bhuyan, Bibeka Nanda Saikia, Jog Dev Mahanta, Subhalakshi Borah, Rafiqul Islam

Advances in Research, Page 127-136
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030259

Aims: The present investigation aimed at assessing the effects of feeding graded levels of DDGS with or without enzymes on the carcass characteristics of indigenous chicken.

Study Design:  The experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati-22, Assam for a period of 182 d (13 fortnights) between January 2018 and June 2018.

Methodology: A total of 180 21 d old indigenous chicks were divided into six groups: T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 each with 30 chicks. The birds of T1, T3 and T5 were fed a basal diet containing 0, 10 and 20 per cent DDGS while the birds in T2, T4 and T6 were fed the same basal diet as that of T1, T3 and T5, respectively, but were additionally supplemented with a commercial exogenous multi-enzyme preparation. The feeding trial was conducted for a period of 182 d (13 fortnights) excluding a metabolic trial for a period of 8 days. At the end of the experiment, four birds from each treatment group were randomly selected, slaughtered and processed and different carcass traits viz. live weight, dressing percentage, relative weights of breast, thigh, drumsticks, liver, heart, gizzard, giblets, head and shank in relation to pre-slaughtered live weights were recorded. The chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of meat samples from different treatment groups were also conducted.

Results: The percent dressing and eviscerated yields of experimental birds under different treatment groups were ranged from 66.81±0.37 to 67.68±0.41 and 71.74±0.54 to 73.35±0.34, respectively. No significant (P ≥ .05) differences were observed in respect of relative weights of various carcass traits in relation to the live body weights, the chemical compositions of breast meat comprising of moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash and the mean scores for organoleptic evaluation comprising of colour, tenderness, flavor, juiciness and overall acceptance of the breast meat of experimental birds from different treatment groups.

Conclusion: It is concluded that DDGS can be incorporated at 20% level in the rations of indigenous chicken for the economic gain without any adverse effect on dressing percentage as well as various carcass traits and organoleptic qualities.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Socio-economic Characteristics of Crop Insured Farmers of Northern Karnataka

S. K. Jamanal, K. V. Natikar, S. V. Halakatti

Advances in Research, Page 137-145
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030260

The study was conducted in Karnataka State during 2017-18 by using “Ex-post- facto” research design. Belgavi, Dharwad, Haveri and Vijayapura districts were selected purposely based on more number of insured farmers. Further, two taluks from each district and from each taluk three villages (i.e. total 24 villages) were selected randomly. Sample size for the study was 240. The findings of the study revealed that, majority of the farmers (53.33%) belonged to middle age, 35.42% of them had received middle school education, majority of the insured farmers (94.16%) were not participated in any training, 47.08% of the respondents belonged to medium annual income category and 39.58% of the insured farmers borrowed loan less than 49000 rupees. About 56.67% of the insured farmers belonged to medium land holding category, medium farming experience (37.50%), medium annual income category (47.08%), medium level of extension contact (43.75%), medium level of mass media exposure (44.16%), medium scientific orientation (42.08%), medium category of risk orientation (52.50%) and medium category of organizational participation (45.83%). More than fifty % (51.25%) of the insured farmers belonged to high perception level with respect to extent of climate variation followed by medium (29.58%) and low (19.17%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Common Fixed Point Theorems for Commuting Self Maps in Banach Spaces via a Measure of Non-compactness

K. Piesie Frimpong

Advances in Research, Page 146-154
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030261

This paper provides common fixed point theorems for a commuting family of self mappings in Banach spaces via a measure of non-compactness. The choice of a commuting family of self maps provides a result that is unique in its own right, generalize Darbos fixed point theorem and specifically extend and improve the work of Meryeme El Harrak and Ahmed Hajji.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Farmer’s Attitude to Plant Agro-forestry Trees in Kaduna State, Nigeria

O. E. Olagunju, O. C. Ariyo, U. U. Emeghara, O. S. Olagunju, S. O. Olafemi

Advances in Research, Page 155-166
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030262

Agro-forestry trees enhance food and nutrition security, increase income and help solve land management problems. This study assessed the determinants of farmer’s attitude to plant agro-forestry trees in Giwa Local Government Area (LGA) of Kaduna State. Six (6) districts were purposively selected from the eight (8) districts in Giwa LGA. Two villages were randomly selected from each district to give a total of twelve (12) villages. Ten agroforestry farmers were selected from each village to make a total of 120 respondents. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics - Chi- square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and regression analysis. The results revealed that the mean age was 40.12 years. Chi-square analysis showed that age (χ2=18.487, P=0.001), educational level (χ2=9.656, P=0.04) were significant to farmersꞌ attitude. PPMC showed that income (r=0.181, p=0.049), membership in organization (r=0.214, P=0.02) were significant to farmersꞌ attitude. Regression analysis showed that years of experience (β=0.330, P=0.001) and constraints (β=0.246, P=0.11) were the determinants of farmers attitude. Farmers (59%) have unfavourable attitude towards tree planting. It was concluded that age group, educational level, income and membership in organization are very important and paramount in enhancing planting of agroforestry trees while years of experience and constraints faced by farmers were major determinants of famer’s attitude to planting agro-forestry trees.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Distribution of Waterbirds across Wetlands of Eastern Uganda

Nachuha Sarah, Fortunate Twagiramaria, Polycarp M. Mwima

Advances in Research, Page 167-182
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030263

Explaining patterns of diversity, and abundance across sites is a central aim of community ecology. Avian communities have been the focus of many studies on species diversity. To be able to explain patterns of waterbirds in wetlands of eastern Uganda, we conducted a rapid assessment in 48 wetlands (38 swamps, two rice paddies and eight lakes) using total counts. We examined waterbird assemblages in these wetlands in relation to wetland area, wetland type, water depth, water pH and the time of year/season. Statistical analysis were conducted using Genstat Version 8.1 (VSN Intl.2003, in which General Linear Mixed Models were used to examine the variations. In total, 9,410 birds from 64 species and 17 families were recorded. Species diversity and overall abundance varied significantly among wetland types and between seasons. Rice paddies were both more species-diverse than lakes and swamps. Wetland area had significant independent and positive effects on the waterbird community. In addition to explaining differences among wetland types in waterbird numbers, water depth had a positive effect on some aspects of the waterbird community with no significant effect of pH. These results imply that an interplay of factors is responsible for the pattern and structure of waterbird communities on wetlands in eastern Uganda.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Perspectives of Cluster Formation in Promoting Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium Enterprises and Sustainable Economic Growth

K. Mahendran, P. Flowrine Olive, S. Moghana Lavanya

Advances in Research, Page 115-121
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i1030257

This article reviews the currently available literature to examine how clusters provided competitive advantage for small and medium businesses, in what ways it led to economic growth and directs the policy interventions of the Indian government. The evolution of clusters and the contribution of researchable issues in evolution are examined. The role of clusters in creating competitive advantage and the research related to redefining the evolution is presented. External economies are the benefits that occur to a business from the external environment of the business, which are beyond its control and results in cost benefits. The firms in cluster promoted the establishment of suppliers around their customers. This in turn benefitted both the supplier and the firm by reduced transportation cost and increased physical accessibility. The firms are also able to avail customized and specialized inputs from the supplier. Cost economies benefitted the firms and led to improved economic growth. Cluster approach has positive implication and important place in economic development of the country. The review of literature clearly brings up the developments in the concept of clustering as experienced across the world and the initiatives of the Government of India matching the developmental needs in this area of entrepreneurship development. The clusters have made better availability of information, in acquiring specialized resources, creation of innovation and competitiveness in the world markets.