Open Access Short Research Article

Assessment of the Different Machine Learning Models for Prediction of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) Yield

Darshan Jagannath Pangarkar, Rajesh Sharma, Amita Sharma, Madhu Sharma

Advances in Research, Page 98-105
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930238

Prediction of crop yield can help traders, agri-business and government agencies to plan their activities accordingly. It can help government agencies to manage situations like over or under production. Traditionally statistical and crop simulation methods are used for this purpose. Machine learning models can be great deal of help. Aim of present study is to assess the predictive ability of various machine learning models for Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) yield prediction. Various machine learning models were applied and tested on panel data of 19 years i.e. from 1999-2000 to 2017-18 for the Bikaner district of Rajasthan. Various data mining steps were performed before building a model. K- Nearest Nighbors (K-NN), Support Vector Regression (SVR) with various kernels, and Random forest regression were applied. Cross validation was also performed to know extra sampler validity. The best fitted model was chosen based cross validation scores and R2 values. Besides the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and root relative squared error (RRSE) were calculated for the testing set. Support vector regression with linear kernel has the lowest RMSE (23.19), RRSE (0.14), MAE (19.27) values followed by random forest regression and second-degree polynomial support vector regression with the value of gamma = auto. Instead there was a little difference with R2, placing support vector regression first (98.31%), followed by second-degree polynomial support vector regression with value of gamma = auto (89.83%) and second-degree polynomial support vector regression with value of gamma = scale (88.83%). On two-fold cross validation, support vector regression with a linear kernel had the highest cross validation score explaining 71% (+/-0.03) followed by second-degree polynomial support vector regression with a value of gamma = auto and random forest regression. KNN and support vector regression with radial basis function as a kernel function had negative cross validation scores. Support vector regression with linear kernel was found to be the best-fitted model for predicting the yield as it had higher sample validity (98.31%) and global validity (71%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Leaf Area, Relative Water Content and Stay-green Habit of Iranian Landraces (Triticum aestivum L.) under Water Stress in Field Conditions

Amandeep Kaur, Rashpal Singh Sarlach

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930227

Water stress is one of the major and challenging abiotic stress that affects the plant mostly at all stages like tillering, booting, anthesis, grain formation and grain filling. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of water stress on relative water content, leaf area and stay green habit of Iranian landraces along with commercial relevant checks under irrigated, restricted irrigation and rain-fed conditions. Iranian landraces were selected based on minimum reduction in vigor index as compared to control lines during preliminary screening experiment in the lab in which water stress is induced by Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000). A field experiment was carried out at the experimental area of the Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab during 2016-2017. The relative water content of Iranian landraces was calculated at the bolting stage according to the turgid weight by applying the equation of relative water content. Leaf area was recorded by leaf area meter and stay-green habit based on a 1-4 visual scale. Analysis of variance revealed interaction among treatment and genotypes was significant (P≤ 0.05) for the leaf area, relative water content, stay green habit at anthesis and 30 days after anthesis. Leaf area, relative water content and stay green habit of Iranian landraces along with commercial checks reduced under water stress conditions. Based on the performance of Iranian landraces under stress conditions, 5 lines IWA 8600397, IWA 8600567, 8606739, IWA 8606786 and IWA 8600753 were considered as water stress tolerant.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Compartmental Model for Analysis and Projection of COVID-19 Dynamics in Bangladesh

Md. Mijanur Rahman, Md. Sadekur Rahman Rani

Advances in Research, Page 14-28
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930228

A novel compartmental model is proposed to project the COVID-19 dynamics in Bangladesh. The exposed population is divided into two classes: tested and not tested. Model parameters are estimated by fitting the output with empirical COVID-19 data of Bangladesh from 7 April 2020 to 15 June 2020. It is found that even if 90% of exposed individuals are tested, number of unidentified cases (recovered or dead) is 3 to 4 times than that of identified cases. As of 15 June 2020, Bangladesh is using the Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) based test to detect the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of false negative rate of this test on unidentified infection is analyzed. It is found that the year-end total recoveries (deaths) surges 700 (800) times if the false negative rate is doubled. Periodic lockdown and relaxation intervals are incorporated by defining the effective contact rate (β) as a periodic function of time. Impact of lockdown is perspicuous from the periodic fluctuation of the basic reproduction number ( ). It is observed that a 90-day-lockdwon reduces the final outcome by 3% while a 30-day-lockdwon increases it by 2%. On other hand, casualties are 10 to 100 times worse in case of no lockdown even with less than half effective contact rate. Analysis of strictness of isolation reveals that a 12.5% increase in the strictness coefficient reduces the exposed population 2.5 times whereas a 37.5% decrease in it intensifies the outcome nearly 9 times. Projections up to 6 April 2021 suggests that the epidemic will reach its peak in Bangladesh in August 2020.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Water Quality of Odor River, Anambra State

Godspower Onyekachukwu Ekwueme, Charles Okechukwu Aronu, Nkechi Udochukwu Otty

Advances in Research, Page 41-48
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930230

Aim: This study examined the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Odor River in Orumba North, Anambra State. The parameters considered were pH, turbidity, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Alkalinity, total hardness, Sulphate ( ), Chloride, Calcium ( ) hardness, Magnesium ( ) hardness, Iron (Fe), Nitrate  (NO3-), Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli).  The objectives of the study were to assess the similarities that exist amongst the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Odor River in Orumba North, Anambra State. Also, to test whether water from Odor river is safe for drinking by the people of Orumba North and its environs.

Methodology: The Cluster analysis and the one-sample T-test method were used to analyze the data obtained for this study.

Results: The findings of the study revealed that the parameters can be grouped in two groups as follows: group A consists of pH, turbidity, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Alkalinity, total hardness, Sulphate ( ), Chloride, Calcium ( ) hardness, Magnesium ( ) hardness, Iron (Fe), Nitrate  (NO3-), and Conductivity while group B consists of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total coliform and E.coli. The physicochemical parameters were found to impact significantly on the variation of the water quality at 5% significant level and their measures did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. Further findings revealed that the bacteriological parameters such as the Escherichia Coli and Total Coliform do not significantly impact on the water quality variation of the river and their measures do not exceed the WHO standard.  

Conclusion: The physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Odor River were found to be within the WHO Standard. However, the physicochemical parameters were found to impact on the water quality variation of the river while the bacteriological parameters do not impact on the variation of the water quality of the river. The implication of the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters not exceeding the WHO standard indicates no risk for the users of the river. Hence, water from Odor River is safe for human consumption and agricultural purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Response of African Marigold (Tagetes erecta) to NPK, Humic Acid and Zinc Sulphate in Red and Lateritic Soils of Jhargarm District of West Bengal

S. Das, F. H. Rahman, T. Sengupta, K. Nag

Advances in Research, Page 49-54
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930231

A field experiment was carried out at Kapgari village of Jhargram district of West Bengal, to study the effects of NPK, humic acid and zinc sulphate on the growth and yield of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.), during the year 2018 and 2019. The experiment included three treatments with ten replications were designed in Randomized Block Design. First treatment (T1) was with the recommended doses of NPK (120: 120: 100 kg/ha). Second treatment (T2) was to apply  fertigation of 75% of the recommended doses in three splits whereas the third treatment (T3) was to apply fertigation of 75% of the recommended doses in five splits along with foliar application (30 and 45 days after planting) of humic acid (0.2%) and Zinc Sulphate (0.2%). Results revealed that the plants treated with T3 found to have maximum plant height (67.6 cm), plant spread (45.2 cm2) and number of branches per plant (27.2) as well as the number of flowers plant-1 (21.7), flower diameter (5.4 cm), individual flower weight (6.6 g) and yield of flower (230.6 q/ha) were also found highest by applying the same.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Faced by Dairy Farmers in Adoption of Animal Welfare Practices in Uttar Pradesh

Jagdeep Gupta, S. Subash, Kalyan Mandi

Advances in Research, Page 55-59
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930232

Animal welfare assumes much significance in the era of dairy commercialization both for health of the animals as well as to improve the farm productivity. Although animal welfare scores, scales and modules have been developed and implemented at developed countries, the outreach of animal welfare and awareness about the same has not been given due importance in developing countries including India. In this context, the present research study was designed to make an attempt to find out the extent of adoption of animal welfare practices by the dairy farmers at field level. The study was undertaken in the Central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh State. Four districts (Hardoi, Auraiya, Allahabad and Kaushambi) were selected purposively based on highest and lowest bovine population and milk production. One block from each district and from each block two villages and from each village 15 farmer-respondents were selected randomly. A total of 120 respondents were finally approached for the primary data collection. The salient findings revealed that, lack of complete know-how about GDMPs/AWPs, lack of incentives, policy and programme support besides non-availability of timely veterinary services were the major constraints expressed by respondents. The present study concludes that, there is strong need to sensitize and train the extension personnel’s/veterinarians about the animal welfare practices and strengthen the dairy extension services among various stakeholders involved in dairying.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of D-Dimer Levels in Southwestern Nigerian Pregnant Women

E. O. Bamisaye, M. A. Okungbowa, D. T. Alade, O. Brown- West, G. T. Oluwasuji

Advances in Research, Page 60-68
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930233

Aim: This study evaluated D-dimer level in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Southwestern Nigeria in order to provide more information on the concentration and liable risks in this region.

Study Design: This is a cross sectional study where convenience sampling method was applied in sample collection.

Place and Duration of Study: Blood samples were collected from pregnant women             attending the antenatal clinics of Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti (FETHI), Ekiti; Federal                Medical Centre (FMC), Owo; and LAUTECH Teaching Hospital (LTH), Osogbo in Southwestern Nigeria.

Methodology: Exactly three hundred pregnant (300) and one hundred and fifty (150) apparently healthy non pregnant women were recruited for this study. The blood samples were analysed for haematocrit (HCT) and platelet count using Sysmex KX-2IN (Japan); prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) by Diagen reagents (Diagnostic Ltd., UK); the international normalized ratio (INR) was calculated from the PT results; and D-dimer quantitative assay using Tina Quant Gen 2 on Cobas C111 (Roche). Data analysis was performed using IBM-SPSS version 25.0; mean and standard deviation was used to summarize continuous variables and descriptive and Inferential statistical tests were employed with level of statistical significance was determined at p<0.05.

Results: The mean D-dimer levels were significantly higher in the pregnant women (0.87 ± 1.00 ugFEU/ml) than in controls (0.31 ± 0.22 ugFEU/ml) with 42% of the pregnant population having elevated concentration while the mean PT, INR and HCT were significantly higher in controls than the subjects (p<0.05).Furthermore, the HCT, platelet, PT and INR were observed to be highest at first trimester; 36.04±5.09 (L/L), 182.72±35.11 (x109/L), 11.80±1.86 (seconds) and 0.35±0.15 respectively, decreasing across the second and the third trimester. On the other hand, the D-dimer and APTT increased exponentially from the first trimester; 0.42±0.18 (ugFEU/ml) and 30.80±3.30 (seconds), through the second and third trimesters respectively (p>0.05).

Conclusion: This study shows a significant increase in D-dimer in the pregnant subjects when compared with the control and an exponential increase in the third trimester, also a significant reduction in some other baseline coagulation profile hence depicting D-dimer as a notable significant marker of coagulation and fibrinolysis. This therefore emphasizes the hypercoagulable state of pregnancy and a need for adequate monitoring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of People Living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Nigeria

Ethel E. Adimora, Eze E. Ajaegbu, Juliet O. Nwigwe, Adaora L. Onuora, Ola N. Onuoha

Advances in Research, Page 69-75
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930234

The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of socio-demographic data on nutritional knowledge, attitude and practices among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Enugu State of Nigeria. A standardized questionnaire was designed to collect information on the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of PLWHIV who attended the HAART centre at the Ntasi Obi Ndi No N’afufu Specialist Centre. Results showed that the respondents scored 65.6% on nutritional knowledge, 13.7% on nutritional attitude, and 54.9% on nutritional practices. The Bivariate analysis showed significant positive correlations between nutritional knowledge and attitude; nutritional knowledge and practices; and nutritional attitude and practices. Monthly income was seen as a common predictor for nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice; hence local foods should be included in their food chart for affordability and accessibility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorated Ratio Estimator of Population Mean Using New Linear Combination

T. A. Raja, S. Maqbool

Advances in Research, Page 76-79
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930235

We propose a new modified ratio estimator of population mean of the main variable using the linear combination of known values of Co-efficient of Kurtosis and Tri-Mean of the auxiliary variable. Mean Square Error (MSE) and bias of the proposed estimator is calculated and compared with the existing estimator. The comparison is demonstrated numerically which shows that the proposed estimator performs better than the existing estimators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cashew Growth and Canopy Dynamics as Influenced by Manuring in a Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecology of Nigeria

Beatrice Abanum Nduka, Olorunfemi Sunday Ojo Akanbi, Idrisu Mohammed, Seun Adewale Adeosun, Osasogie Ugioro, Kehinde Olusola Oyeledun, Adeyemi Favour Okunade

Advances in Research, Page 80-88
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930236

A two-year experiment was conducted to study the response of manuring on growth and canopy development on three-year-old Cashew trees. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. Soil characteristics including the chemical and physical properties were analyzed before and after the experiments. Fecti-plus organic pelletized fertilizer was applied at different rates of 0,750.6 and 1,501.2 kg/ha-1 respectively around the circumference of the tree. Before the application, the fertilizer sample was also analyzed. Data collected were plant height, stem girth, canopy dynamics which includes: Canopy diameter, canopy radius, canopy spread (North-South and East-West directions), canopy volume, canopy ground cover and percentage ground cover. The results from the pre soil sample show a relatively low status but were significantly enhanced after the application of the pelletized organic fertilizer (Ferti-plus). The soil nutrient composition of Oc, Om, N, K, Na, Ca and Mg+ was significantly highest in the plots having 1,501.2 kg/ha-1 treatments. Generally, there was a significant increase in the soil nutrient with the addition of pelletized fertilizer in respective of the rate of application. Also the results on the canopy dynamic in terms of canopy volume, spread and diameter revealed better development with the use of 1501.2 kg/ha-1 pelletized fertilizer and significantly different to 750.6 kg/ha-1 and those in the no-manure (control)plots. Meanwhile, the use of pelletized organic fertilizer gave superior growth and canopy development. It also influenced the growth of the Cashew plants, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the soil status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera: Production and Marketing in Tiruppur District

S. Kavithambika, V. M. Indumathi, K. Mahendran

Advances in Research, Page 89-97
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930237

Aim: The study aimed at analyzing both the production and marketing aspects of Moringa oleifera. The main objective of this study was to analyze price and cost along the existing marketing channels of Moringa, and identify the most efficient channel. The study also sheds light on factors that affect the choice of market channel for Moringa marketing.

Methodology: Tiruppur district of Tamil Nadu was selected for the study based on Moringa area and production statistics. Non- probability sampling technique was used to select the sample respondents. The sample consisted of 40 Moringa farmers and 35 market intermediaries (10 Local traders/Commission agents, 10 Wholesalers, 5 Processors and 10 Retailers). Conventional analysis using percentage; price spread along the chain was estimated by calculating farmer’s net price, marketing margin and farmer’s share in consumer’s rupee; technical efficiency of the farmers were measured using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEAP software version 2.1).

Results: Moringa was the most cultivated crop as it was drought tolerant and generated higher profits. About 50 percent of farmers operated in a technical efficiency range greater than 0.90 and, technical efficiency varied substantially between 0.67 and 1.00, with a mean technical efficiency of 0.89. Majority of the farmers preferred selling their produce to local traders and the reason for preferring that channel was it saved their time. Marketing Margin of processors were the highest.

Conclusion: Farmers can sell their produce directly to the retailers, as it was found to be the most efficient channel. Farmers could be better educated through government aided consultancy services and these consultancy firms and farmers associations, could work together. Price fluctuation presents a favorable climate for value addition processes in the study area and processors can expand the existing small-scale activities to meet out the demand.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Process Variables on a Rice De-stoning Machine

O. A. Adetola, D. L. Akindahunsi

Advances in Research, Page 106-115
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930239

Investigation of the effect of processing factors on a rice de-stoner is necessary to address the major challenge of stone pebbles be introduced during harvesting and post-harvest handling of rice production. In this study, three process variables (moisture content, feed regulator, and machine speed) were investigated to determine their effects on a rice de-stoner. Design expert version 11 Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to identify the process variables levels yielding optimum rice tray loss, impurity level after separation rice separation efficiency, stone separation efficiency, and capacity of the machine. Feed regulator had a little effect on both the tray loss and impurity level after the separation of rice. Machine speed and moisture content had a little effect on both the rice separation efficiency and the stone separation efficiency while the feed regulator and moisture content in percentage had a little effect on the machine capacity. The rice de-stoner has the optimum machine speed, feed regulator, and moisture content of 189.654 rpm, 7.307 mm, and 11.88% respectively. The tray loss, impurity level after separation, rice separation efficiency, stone separation efficiency and machine capacity have optimum values of 9.366 %, 5.713 %, 90.629 %, 72.448 % and 133.024 kg/h with the corresponding R2 values of 0.71, 0.97, 0.71, 0.96, and 0.96 respectively at desirability value of 0.713 which indicates the nearness of the response to the predicted values and adequacy of models established in describing the observed values. The optimization of rice de-stoner showed an optimal processing condition for independent parameters and the machine response variables. This research is a contribution to the improvement of the quality of Nigerian rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Keeping Waste Low through Management: The Socio-ecological Interpretation

Arindam Ghosh, Dibyendu Pal, Amitava Biswas, S. K. Acharya

Advances in Research, Page 125-140
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930241

Waste is a ceaselessly developing issue at worldwide and territorial just as at neighborhood levels. Due to vigorous globalization and product proliferation in recent years, more waste has been produced by the soaring manufacturing activities. The social ecology of waste recycling implies the structural, functional and managerial intervention of waste generation process. The present study takes a look into the approach, process and impact of ongoing waste management process, followed by the both kalyani and jalpaiguri municipalities. A set of agro-ecological, socio-economic and techno managerial factors have been developed by selecting two sets of operating variables. 21 independent variables and one dependent variable i.e. waste reduction methods (y4) were selected for the research. Total one fifty respondents, seventy five from each municipal area have been selected by systematic random sampling. A basket of multivariate analytic techniques have been carried out to isolate and interpret the variables.  Throughout the study it has been observed that in terms of variable behavior and responses there has been stark differences between jalapaiguri and kalyani where as some few variables like income, impact of waste management and recycling on water and micro flora and fauna have recorded the distinct contribution, for jalpaiguri volume of waste generation from household, water consumption per day have gone in the determinant way. But in both municipal areas perception of environmental impact of waste management have recorded equal contribution. So it can be said that improper waste management leads to ecological damage and waste reduction methods will reduce waste generation, improper waste disposal and save our environment and ecology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heterosis in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for Yield and Yield Component Traits

Desalegn Negasa Soresa, Gomathi Nayagam, Netsanet Bacha, Zerihun Jaleta

Advances in Research, Page 141-152
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930242

Estimates of heterosis for F1 hybrids over mid and better parent were computed for traits that showed significant differences between genotypes on analysis of variance. Heterosis for yield components and yield was studied using 8x8 half diallel cross in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The heterosis for yield was generally accompanied by heterosis for yield components. Heterosis for marketable fruit yield per plant ranged from (-63.4%) (P3xP8) to (33.8%) (P6xP8) and (-62.5%) (P3xP8) to (52.6%) (P5xP7), for mid parent and better parent respectively. Significant heterosis over better and mid-parent was observed for all the traits.  Best parent and Mid-parent heterosis (MPH) was highest  and in desirable direction for number of marketable fruit per plant  (29.3%; 29.2%)  in crosses ( P3xP6 for both ) and pericarp thickness  (46.3%; 57.6%) in crosses (P2xP6 and P4xP8), number of fruit cluster per plant (32.8%; 35.9%) in cross (P3xP6 for both), individual fruit weight (36.1%; 41.2%) in cross (P2xP8, P3xP5) and fruit diameter (28.4%; 28.3%) in cross (P3xP5; P2xP6), fruit length (23.07%; 20.4%)  in cross (P2xP6 for both). Out of 28 F1 crosses, positive and desirable heterosis by 10 crosses over better parent and 17 crosses over mid-parent were observed for total fruit density in tomato. An important heterosis both in heterobeltiosis and mid-parent was recorded in marketable fruit yield in ton per hectare. From all the crosses, seven crosses revealed positive from which three crosses are the most important P2xP7 (31%),  P3xP5 (20%) and P3xP6 (54%) in better parent heterosis. Similarly for mid-parent heterosis, only ten crosses out of 28 reveled positive while the rest 18 crosses showed the undesirable direction for marketable fruit yield indicating majority of the hybrids exhibited unfavorable heterotic response and only a few hybrids could be considered for selection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Grog Additions on Some Refractory Properties of Raw (Abusoro) Kaolin Clay Deposit for Furnace Lining

A. O. Aluko, C. O. Ikubuwaje

Advances in Research, Page 180-191
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930245

The influence of the weight of grog on some refractory properties of raw Abusoro clay samples found in Abusoro Village, Ondo State, Nigeria was evaluated. These samples were presented for refractory tests (apparent porosity, linear shrinkage, refractoriness, bulk density and cold crushing strength). The weights of the grog were varied from 20-40 wt. % in the blend. The chemical and microstructural examinations of the untreated alumino-silicate Abusoro clay samples indicated that they are abundant in silica, SiO2 (62.74wt. %) and alumina, Al2O3 (31.42wt. %). Other minor compounds found are Fe2O3 (1.43%), K2O (0.30%) with no trace amounts of MgO (0.00); therefore, they are regarded as alumino-silicate. Particular observation is made on MgO with zero amounts and the total of K2O + Na2O + MgO which are less than 2% in the clay samples. These results signify that the clay possesses high viability for manufacturing of refractory bricks, pulp and paper, ceramics, fertilizers, paint and cement. The performance evaluations of the refractory bricks measured indicated acceptable and satisfactory results vis-à-vis standard refractory properties for refractory fireclay bricks. However, the apparent porosity (43.2%) and CCS (21.21MPa) obtained for Abusoro clay sample at 30% weight of grog may as well be suitable for insulating refractory applications. The high apparent porosity could be an indication of high content of silicon oxide in the raw clay.

Open Access Review Article

Potential Review on Palmyra (Borassus flabellifer L.)

T. R. Sridevi Krishnaveni, R. Arunachalam, M. Chandrakumar, G. Parthasarathi, R. Nisha

Advances in Research, Page 29-40
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930229

The state tree of Tamil Nadu, Borassus flabellifer L. is a nature’s gift to the mankind. It is plant that serves various ecological, medicinal, economical and sociological benefits to the society. It a plant of heaven that could sustain adverse climatic conditions and withstand natural calamities. It is one among the most beneficial species that has economical and medicinal value for each and every part. It found widely in tropical and arid countries ranging from India through South-East Asia to New Guinea. The plant has a very close connection with the rural livelihood and cottage and agro based industries of Indian economy. The utility of the plant could be widely classified into Non-edible, edible and value addition based uses. This paper attempts to give a birds eye view about palmyra’s distribution, nutritional and medicinal properties, different utility forms and the impact on rural livelihood.

Open Access Review Article

Coronavirus Spike (S) Protein: A Brief Review on Structure-Function Relationship, Host Receptors, and Role in Cell Infection

Lidiane Pereira de Albuquerque, Leydianne Leite de Siqueira Patriota, Vitor Gonzatto, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Thiago Henrique Napoleão

Advances in Research, Page 116-124
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930240

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a broad group of spherical and enveloped viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. CoVs have become a major threat to public health in the past two decades, exemplified by epidemics of acute respiratory syndromes and, most recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The envelope of CoVs contains spike (S) proteins, which are transmembrane proteins with a crown-like shape involved in cell attachment, cell‒cell fusion, host tropism, and pathogenesis. The receptors for spike proteins in host cells can be glycans and proteins. This review approaches the structural and functional aspects of the S protein of CoVs. Several issues are presented, including the structure‒function relationship, examples of host receptors, S protein-host cell connection, and its role in the entry of the virus into host cells. The S protein is one of the main targets of studies on the evolutionary relationships between CoVs, mapping of cross-host transmission events, changes in virulence, variations in disease severity level, and the development of therapeutic strategies and vaccines.

Open Access Review Article

Effective Management of Hilsa Shad (Tenualosa ilisha): Prevailing Research Trends in Bangladesh

Md. Golam Mustafa

Advances in Research, Page 153-179
DOI: 10.9734/air/2020/v21i930243

Aim: The purpose of this review is to support widely accepted knowledge based effective management of Hilsa shad populations through smart decisions.

Study Design: Literature review of the population dynamics based studies along with the relevant papers of Hilsa shad fishery management in Bangladesh. Thus, accurate estimations of population size, growth parameters, mortalities and exploitation rates are critical for success.

Place and Duration of Study: The literature review and other relevant documents are based in the coastal and riverine areas of Bangladesh during last three decades.

Methodology: The review mainly included research findings on the catch and population dynamics of Hilsa shad in the riverine and coastal habitats of Bangladesh. This review comprised of published results on asymptotic length (Lµ), growth co-efficient (K), Growth performance index (ф’), mortality rates (natural-M, fishing-F and total-Z), exploitation rates (E), gear selectivity (Lc), maximum sustainable yield (MSY), standing stock or steady state biomass (SSB), average weight/length and length-weight relationship parameters.

Results: The asymptotic length, growth co-efficient and growth performance index were varied from 51.5 to 65.6cm, 0.51 to 0.99 and 3.14 to 3.55 respectively. The variation of growth range was appeared from 21.19 – 37.69, 33.66 – 51.69, 41.0 – 56.89, 45.32 – 59.09, 47.86 – 60.79 and 49.36 – 62.52 cm at the end of age 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years respectively. Simultaneously, natural, fishing and total mortality were varied from 0.89 to 1.52, 0.45 to 3.45 and 1.68 to 4.9 respectively. The exploitation rates were varied between 0.27 and 0.70, and the length at first capture were differs to be 39.24 to 57.65% of the mean asymptotic length. The overall mean length and weight value equal to 34.0±2.67cm and 540±120gm respectively. While the majority of the research papers (90%) indicated, overfishing, the annual catch of the species shows an increasing trend of 10,038 tons per year (R2=0.81) between financial year 1989-90 and 2018-19. The estimated MSY varied from 162396 to 283597, 283597 to 404798 and 404798 to 526000 tons from 60%, 30% and 10% studies respectively. The mean MSY value equal to 282174 ±100530 tons. Besides, three case studies showed deviations, inclusion of hypothesis based results and analytical gap. Thus, through the continual publication process the absolute unclear results maybe adjust or accepts in the national policy, including SDG-14s.

Conclusions: The study indicated that the importance of science excellence, precise assessment and accurate estimation of the status of the fish stocks is vital for sustainable management of a fishery. Thus, the technical investigations need experience to analyze, predict results and produce fisheries management related suggestions, which is highly correlated to national or regional resource management decision.