Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Study: The Relationship between Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Carriage and Mosquitoes Infectiousness in Two Sympatric Ethnic Groups in Burkina Faso

Samuel S. Serme, Noëlie H. Bere, Salif Sombie, Amidou Diarra, Desire Kargougou, Benjamin S. Sombie, Moussa Guelbeogo, Ouedraogo N. Issa, Alfred B. Tiono, Edith C. Bougouma, David Modiano, Yves Traore, Issiaka Soulama, Sodiomon B. Sirima

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i530167

Aims: The lower susceptibility of the Fulani to malaria compared to Mossi was previously described in Burkina Faso in West Africa. The mature gametocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum is known to be the only stage capable of infecting the mosquito though this process is disrupted by the action of immunity and other factors as well. Our study aims to assess the ability of two sympatric ethnic groups known to have different susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to infect mosquitoes through an experimental membrane feeding assay.

Methodology: Study participants were gametocyte carriers aged from 2 to 12 years recruited in the village of Barkoundouba where Fulani and Mossi are living in sympatric. A venous blood was obtained from each participant for direct membrane feeding assay of insectary reared mosquitoes. Blood fed mosquitoes were stored for 7 days with sugar water as the only food source, then dissected for the microscopic detection for oocysts.

Results: A total of 1050 mosquitoes were used for the experimental infections. Eight day after feeding, a total of 897 mosquitoes were dissected, 275 from the Fulani and 622 from the Mossi group. With an average of 43 stomachs examined by experimentation, the mosquito infestation rate was 10.5% in Fulani and 13.2% in Mossi group (p=0.569). The fed mosquito rate was 95 % and 95.6% in Fulani and Mossi ethnic group respectively (p=0.241). The rate of survival mosquitoes after the feeding was 96.5% and 87.5% in Fulani and Mossi ethnic group respectively (p=0.088). The proportion of dissected mosquitoes was 100% and 99.2% in Fulani and Mossi ethnic group respectively (p=0.138) leading to an average oocystic load of 249 in Fulani and 21 in Mossi group. The success rate of DMFA in both groups combined was 57.14%. Indeed, this rate was 33.33% and 66.67% in Fulani and Mossi group respectively.

Conclusion: Our study showed that there is no significant difference found between the two ethnic group with the fed, survival, dissected and the infested mosquitoes rate. However, the average of oocystic load was higher in Fulani than the Mossi group despite the low infection in Fulani group. There is a need to explore the mechanism underlying such difference between the two ethnic groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Fisheries Management Techniques in Three Wetlands in Bangladesh

Md Golam Mustafa

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i530168

Aim: To evaluate the impact of community-based co-management and fisheries management techniques on fisheries production and biodiversity in three large wetlands in Bangladesh.

Study Design: A robust catch assessment approach to measure fisheries production, species composition and biodiversity in large wetlands.

Place and Duration of Study: The study sites are located in three wetlands in Bangladesh, namely Hail Haor, Kangsha-Malijhee and Turag-Bangshi for a period of two years (2010 and 2011) covering MACH and IPAC working area.

Methodology: Species wise catch and efforts by gear type was monitored through the regular sampling to estimate the annual total catch and fishing effort. Randomly selected samples of the catch by species and effort by gear are recorded for each gear type observed to be operated on the same day. The numbers and weight of all fish species in the catch were recorded. The study also compared results in the last years of MACH initiatives to observe the status of fisheries production (kg/ha) and biodiversity Index (H´).

Results: The study indicated that the 2011 annual fish production (kg/ha) increased by 125 and 271% compared to the baseline survey in 1999 in Hail Haor and Kangsho-Malijhee respectively. The results suggested that Hail Haor and Kangsha-Malijhee wetlands showed considerably enriched biodiversity over 12 years, whilst, Turag-Bangshi showed upwards from 1999 to 2006 and decreased in 2010 and 2011. In 2010, fish production was 393, 322 and 139 kg/ha, and in 2011 fishes production was 370, 556 and 88 kg/ha in Hail Haor, Kangsho-Malijhee and Turagh-Bangshi wetlands, respectively.

Conclusions: The assessment indicated that the overall fish production and biodiversity has been improved due to community-based co-management and this lesson could be replicated widely to sustain wetland resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender and Faculty of Study as Predictors of Undergraduate Students’ Academic Achievement in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

L. I. Akunne, T. U. Chigbo-Obasi

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i530169

Aims: To determine gender and faculty of study as predictor of undergraduate students’ academic achievement in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Study Design:  Ex-post facto research design.

Methodology: The sample for the study was 632 100 level students selected using simple random sampling technique of balloting without replacement. These students were selected from tertiary institutions sampled for the study. The data collected were pre-existing results of 100 level students on General mathematics retrieved from the respective departments sampled earlier. Data collected was analyzed using simple regression analysis.   

Results: The results of this study revealed that gender of undergraduate students had R2 change of 0.004. This indicates that gender had the predictive power of 0.40 percent for undergraduates’ achievement in General Mathematics. Also, at 1df numerator, 631 df denominator and P=.05, the calculated F value 2.54 is less than the critical F value of 3.84. Therefore, gender of undergraduates in tertiary institutions is not a significant predictor of their achievements in General Mathematics. On the other hand, the results showed that undergraduate students had R2 change of 0.009. This indicates that faculty of study had the predictive power of 0.90 percent for undergraduates academic achievement in General Mathematics. Also, at 1df numerator, 631df denominator and P = .05, the calculated F value 6.78 is greater than the critical F value of 3.84. Therefore, students’ faculty of study in tertiary institutions is a significant predictor of their achievements in General Mathematics.

Conclusion: Based on the analysis carried out, it was concluded that gender of undergraduates in tertiary institutions is not a significant predictor of their achievement in General Mathematics. On the contrary, students’ faculty of study in tertiary institutions was found to be a significant predictor of their achievements in General Mathematics.

Open Access Original Research Article

HIV Disclosure in Children in This Millenium – Should It still be an Issue?

A. U. Eneh, R. O. Ugwu, N. I. Paul

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i530170

Background: As more children with HIV survive into adolescence and adulthood, one of the most difficult issues that families with HIV-infected children face is disclosure of their children’s status to them.

Objective: To explore factors associated with disclosure or none disclosure and whether disclosure is beneficial or not.

Methods: The mothers of HIV positive children who brought their children aged 5-18 years to the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from January to December 2015 were interviewed using a structured investigator administered questionnaire.

Results: Of the 100 caregivers interviewed, 26.0% have disclosed the HIV status to the children. The mean age at disclosure was 14.42 ± 2.45 years. Care givers that have disclosed were significantly older (45.58±8.32 years vs 38.18±9.2 years; p = .0002). The mean age of children whose status have been disclosed was significantly higher than those who were yet to be aware of their status (14.42±2.45years vs 10.97±3.11 years; p = 0.00001). There was no significant difference in the mode of transmission and orphan status between the two groups. Disclosure was significantly more among children who were diagnosed between 5-10 years of age (14; 53.8%) (p=0.013), have taken antiretroviral drugs for over 24 months (22; 84.6%) (p= 0.003) and had at least one HIV-infected sibling (21; 80.8%) (p=0.00001). Among 13 (50.0%) whose status have been disclosed and 59 (79.7%) whose status had not been disclosed, the caregiver had disclosed the child’s status to others (p= 0.004). The major reason for disclosing was because the child was either asking questions on why he/she is taking drugs or he/she is refusing to take drugs (15; 57.7%) respectively. Only 6 (23.1%) caregivers disclosed because they felt the child has a right to know. Most difficult question asked by the children during disclosure was how they got the HIV (22; 84.6%). Reasons given for non-disclosure included fear of disclosure to others (74; 100%), child too young to understand (70; 94.5%) and fear of impact on child’s emotional health (42; 56.7%). Majority 20 (76.9%) of the care givers felt relieved after disclosure. Twenty-four (92.3%) caregivers felt disclosure had improved child’s adherence to antiretroviral therapy and determination to survive (22; 84.6%).

Conclusion: Disclosure is beneficial to both the child and caregiver. Healthcare providers should encourage caregivers to disclose HIV status to their children as soon as possible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age and Marital Status as Predictors of Undergraduate Students’ Academic Achievement in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

A. Anyamene, L. I. Akunne, C. D. Ifedioramma

Advances in Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i530171

Aims: To determine marital status and age as predictor of undergraduate students’ academic achievement in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Study Design:  Ex-post facto research design.

Materials and Methods: The sample for the study was 632 100 level students selected using simple random sampling technique of balloting without replacement. The data collected were pre-existing results of 100 level students on Use of English retrieved from the respective departments. Data collected was analyzed using simple regression analysis.   

Results: The findings of the study revealed that marital status of the undergraduate students had R2 change of 0.000. This indicates that marital status had the predictive power of 0.00 percent for undergraduates’ academic achievement in Use of English course. Also, at 1 df numerator, 631 df denominator and P value = .05 level of significant, the calculated F value = 0.85 is less than the critical F value = 3.84. Therefore, marital status of the university undergraduates is not a significant predictor of their academic achievement in Use of English course taught in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Similarly, age of the undergraduate students had R2 change of 0.020. This indicates that age had the predictive power of 2.00 percent for undergraduates’ academic achievement in Use of English course. Also, at 1df numerator, 631df denominator and P value .05, the calculated F value = 14.06 and is greater than the critical F value of 3.84. This implies that age of university undergraduates is a significant predictor of their academic achievement in Use of English course.

Conclusion: Based on the analysis, it was concluded that age of university undergraduates is a significant predictor of their academic achievement in Use of English course in tertiary institutions. It was also deduced that marital status of undergraduates is not a significant predictor of their academic achievement in tertiary institutions.