Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Several Factors on Student Pharmacists’ Choice of Drug Information Resources

Jason W. Guy, Hilary Mandler, Isha Patel, Andrew Hvizdos, Megha Patel

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i330157

Introduction: The provision of drug information (DI) is a fundamental responsibility of pharmacists. The availability of advanced technology and mobile devices has greatly affected how drug information is retrieved.  Utilization of these resources and references are unique skills taught in pharmacy programs to help meet the need of pharmacists in practice and to meet national accreditation standards.  Currently there is little information on how different factors influence pharmacy students’ choice of drug information resources.

Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional survey was developed to assess pharmacy students’ utilization of tertiary DI resources by age, gender, and year in professional program. The survey was developed using the software Qualtrics® and contained questions pertaining to the selection of specific tertiary DI resources used most often for a variety of DI topics. Differences between groups were calculated using ANOVA.

Results: Students in their P4 year utilized tertiary DI resources more frequently than students in their P1 and P2 year (p= <0.001, 0.001 respectively).   There were no differences in the frequency of resource utilization between males and females surveyed (p=0.656, MD = 0.0652). Total usage of DI resources differed by year in professional school.

Conclusion: The results of this study may be beneficial to pharmacy schools as it provides insights into the factors that influence student preference for tertiary drug information resources.  This study found that age, year in school, and type of drug information request impacted students’ use of tertiary DI resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavior of Concrete Deep Beams Reinforced with Inclined Web Reinforcement around Different Opening Shapes

Ahmed H. Abdel-Kareem, Ibrahim A. El-Azab

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i330158

The objective of this paper is to experimentally and analytically estimate the influence of inclined reinforcement placed above and below web openings having different shapes in reinforced concrete (RC) deep beam. Twenty RC deep beams had the same overall geometric dimensions were tested under two-point top loading. Test variables included amount of inclined reinforcement, opening shape (circular, square, rectangular and relatively new type rectangular with fillet edges) and shear span-to-depth ratio. The relationship between the amount of inclined reinforcement and the opening size was expressed as the effective inclined reinforcement factor. As this factor was increased, the behavior of tested beams improved, where the crack width and its development decreased, and the ultimate load increased. The improvement rate of ultimate load with increasing effective inclined reinforcement for beams with rectangular openings having fillet edges was higher than that with sharp edges. Beams with opening having square, circular, or rectangular with fillet edges shapes and having effective inclined reinforcement ratio above 0.085 and 0.091 under shear span-to-depth ratio 1.0 and 0.6, respectively had higher ultimate load than that of corresponding solid beams. The effect of inclined reinforcement on enhancing the behavior of deep beam with opening increased as the shear span-to-depth ratio decreased. The ultimate load of tested beams was estimated using upper-bound analysis of the plasticity theory and compared with the test results. It is shown that the prediction has a consistent agreement with the experimental results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend and Instability in Area, Production and Productivity of Food Grains in Haryana Vis-A-Vis India

Nisha ., Baishali ., Mohit Nain, D. R. Aneja, Sanjeev .

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i330159

The Presented study is an attempt to examine the trend and instability in area, production and productivity of food grain crops in Haryana and India during period 1966-67 to 2012-13 and five sub periods i.e. P-I (1966-67 to 1975-76), P-II (1976-77 to 1985-86), P-III (1986-87 to 1995-96), P-IV (1996-97 to 2005-06) and  P-V (2006-07 to 2012-13). The study is based on secondary data. The study reveals positive trends in area, production and yield of food grains for both Haryana and India. Production in Haryana and India increased mainly due to increase in yield. Similar results have been obtained on triennium bases. In Haryana, area, production and yield have shown positive growth rates in all the periods and the overall period except for area in Period-III, IV and V. In the case of India positive growth rates has obtained for production and yield of food grains while area has shown negative trend in Periods III, IV, V and entire period under study. The coefficient of variation (C.V.) in respect of the three components i.e. area, production and productivity of total food grains found to be higher in Haryana as compared to India in all the periods and the overall period except for yield in period-III, yield and production in period-IV and yield in Period-V. Similar results have been obtained for the instability indices.

Open Access Original Research Article

PgTI, the First Bioactive Protein Isolated from the Cactus Pilosocereus gounellei, is a Trypsin Inhibitor with Antimicrobial Activity

Cláudio Alberto Alves da Rocha Filho, Poliana Karla Amorim, Thâmarah de Albuquerque Lima, Pollyanna Michelle da Silva, Maiara Celine de Moura, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i330160

Aims: This work aimed to isolate, characterize and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a trypsin inhibitor (PgTI) from the stem of Pilosocereus gounellei.

Place and Duration of Study: Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco between March 2013 and October 2018. Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro between June and July 2018.

Methodology: PgTI was isolated from P. gounellei stem extract by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatographies. The inhibitor was characterized by isoelectric focusing, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tryptic digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis and for stability towards heating. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated through broth microdilution assays. Viability of the microbial cells was also evaluated by flow cytometry analysis using thiazol orange and propidium iodide.

Results: PgTI appeared as a single polypeptide band of 37.1 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) 5.88. The inhibition constant (Ki) for bovine trypsin was 14 nM and mass spectrometry analysis of PgTI did not reveal similarities with other plant proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity was stable at temperatures up to 50ºC. PgTI inhibited growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) from 7.5 to150 µg/mL) with bactericidal activity only against Escherichia coli (minimal bactericidal concentration: 75.0 µg/mL). PgTI also inhibited the growth of Candida krusei (MIC of 60 µg/mL). Flow cytometry confirmed that PgTI did not affect the viability of E. coli and C. krusei cells at the MIC.

Conclusion: This is the first report on a bioactive protein purified from P. gounellei, which provides biotechnological value to this cactus.

Open Access Review Article

Cannabis, the Plant of the Unlimited Possibilities

Klaus Dölle, David E. Kurzmann

Advances in Research, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i330161

This review paper gives an overview of Cannabis Sativa, also known as hemp, which has been cultivated and used century's B.C. due to its medical, hallucinogenic and agricultural properties. Cannabis has been described in 1938 as the billion-dollar plant but has lost its value in the U.S. due to regulatory and legislative issues.

Hemp has seen as new push In the U.S. with the introduction of the 2018 Farm Bill which allows on a federal level to grow hemp, pending on individual state regulations. Currently, industrial hemp production is allowed in at least 38 U.S. States under strict regulations.

Today hemp is used in counties that do not have as strict regulations as the U.S. in a variety of applications such as beauty products, carpets, cooking oil, personal care products and textiles.

Hemp can be considered as an alternative feedstock due to its low lignin and high cellulose level for biofuel application as an alternative to replace petroleum-based fuels and gases.

In the U.S. hemp research in these areas has stalled due to the complexity of the law.

Beside industrial application such as ropes, textiles, shoes, etc., hemp today is used in pharmaceutical and medical applications, by extracting Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoids from the leaves and fluorescence of the hemp plant that contain no more than of up to 0.3% of these compounds. The use of hemp plants with higher levels are strictly forbidden in most countries.

Several extraction processes of cannabinoids from hemp are used They all use a solvent for extraction but differ in terms of efficiency, usage range and other factors influencing the extraction.

Nonetheless, overconsumption of cannabis products can be associated with several side effects, that can cause serious physiological and psychological damage in the human body may cause serious damage.