Open Access Short Research Article

Determinants of Poverty Status of Cassava-based Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

M. N. Osuji

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i130145

The study assessed the determinants of Poverty Status of Cassava based farmers in Imo State, specifically; it examined the socio-economic characteristics of cassava farmers and assessed determinants of poverty status among cassava-based farmers in Imo state. Multistage and purposive sampling techniques were used in selecting sixty (60) cassava-based farmers in the three agricultural zones in the area. Data used for the study were obtained using structured questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Foster Greer Thorbecke (FGT) and ordered probit model. The result showed that the mean age was 50 years, 67% of the respondents were women, 47% of the respondents attended secondary education, they have 25 years mean farming experience, the mean household size was 6 persons, 88% of the farmers are married, and they have mean farm size of 1.03 hectare. The result of Foster Greer Thorbecke (FGT) analysis showed that the estimate of the poverty profile of cassava-based farmers in the study area was N62, 476.67k, the poverty incidence was 0.25, and the poverty depth and severity were 0.0659 and 0.0362 respectively. This implied that 6.59% of the total expenditure is required to close the poverty gap while in extreme cases additional 3.62% was required to cross the poverty line. The ordered probit analysis showed that education, household size, farm income and extension contact were statistically significant at 1% and 5% probability levels, respectively. Findings revealed that education, household size, farm income and extension contact were the significant determinants of farmers poverty status.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Lipid Profile of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy at Mpilo Central Hospital Opportunistic Infections Clinic

N. Maunga, E. Zumbika, K. Mhandire, F. F. Chikuse, G. A. Mavondo

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i130146

Aims: Long term use of antiretroviral therapy subpopulation living with human immunodeficiency virus is associated with disturbances in blood lipids profiles which are not routinely monitored. More data on such disturbances are needed to persuade the country’s program to institute routine monitoring. This study sought to determine the prevalence and timing of dyslipidaemia in HIV/AIDS naïve people on ART at in Zimbabwe.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Mpilo Central Hospital Opportunistic Infections Clinic in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe over a period of three months.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-infected persons receiving highly active anti-retroviral treatment at Mpilo Central Hospital Opportunistic Infections Clinic. Lipid assays were determined by Elisa methods. Viral loads and CD4 were measured using the COBAS® TaqMan® and BD FACSCount™ Flow Cytometer, respectively.

Results: A total of 149 consenting participants were enrolled and most (63.2%) were females. The median age of the respondents was 43 years and their median CD4 count was 436 cells/μl after a median duration on ART of 36 months. Viral load was <40 in the majority (68.6%) of the participants. More females (63.1%) were on HAART and were aged >35 (60.4%) years. NNRTI (90.6%) were the more commonly prescribed HAART. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia was 70.2%. Hypercholesterolaemia was observed in 72 (48.3%) patients with 26 being male and 46 being female. High levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c ≥ 3.0 mmol/L) were found in 115 patients with 74 of them being female. Hypertriacylglycerolaemia (TAG ≥ 2.0 mmol/L) was present in 8 cases. The proportion of patients with a low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c < 1.0 mmol/L) was 15.3% while those with a ratio of TC/HDL-c ≥ 4.1 were 87.5%.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated a high prevalence of dyslipidaemia in HIV-patients receiving HAART. There is a need for the Country’s HIV program to institute laboratory monitoring of blood lipids in patients over one year on HAART.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physician Burnout and Associated Factors: Orthopaedics vs Anesthesia

John Reynolds, Bradley Wiekrykas, Frederick V. Ramsey, Christopher Haydel, Meera Gonzalez

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i130147

Background: Physician burnout has garnered increased attention in recent studies. It is attributed to the intrinsic stresses of medical practice and affects the quality of patient care. Previous studies have reported roughly half of orthopedic surgery and anesthesiology faculty and residents suffer symptoms of burnout.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference in burnout rates among orthopedic surgeons and anesthesiologists, between faculty and residents in both specialties, and possible associated factors that may predispose participants to experience burnout.    

Methods: Data was gathered using the Maslach Burnout inventory survey (42 questions), which was distributed during the spring/summer of 2017 to orthopaedic surgery and anesthesiology residents and attending physicians, anesthesiology residents, orthopedic surgery faculty, and orthopedic surgery residents from various programs in the northeastern United States.

Results: Survey Response rate was 238/666 = 38% response. As compared to attendings, residents scored: worse on Emotional Exhaustion; worse on Depersonalization and worse on Personal Accomplishment. When comparing specialties; for Emotional Exhaustion, Orthopaedic surgery scored better as compared with Anesthesiology. On Personal Accomplishment, Orthopaedic surgery scored better as compared with Anesthesiology. Residents had higher levels of burnout compared to attendings. Regarding specialty, Orthopaedic surgery scored significantly lower with regard to Emotional Exhaustion and Personal Accomplishment. It was also discovered that Orthopaedic surgeons overall have more social events, and more residents have mentors.

Conclusion: Residents consistently demonstrated higher levels of burnout than attendings in both anesthesiology and orthopaedic surgery. Having a mentor and more interdepartmental social events may protect against burnout.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Jigsaw-Puzzle Instructional Strategy on Secondary School Students’ Performance on Growth as a Concept in Biology in Abia State

Joy C. Chukwu, A. A. Arokoyu

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i130148

The study examined the effects of jigsaw-puzzle instructional strategy on secondary school students’ performance on Growth as a concept in Biology in Ukwa West Local Government Area, Abia State.  Gender effect on Biology students’ performance was also investigated. Two objectives, two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Quasi-experimental design was adopted in this study. One hundred and fifteen (115) Biology students from two mixed secondary schools randomly selected formed the sample size. Biology Performance Test on Growth (BPTOG) which contained twenty (20) multiple choice questions was used for gathering data. Test re-test method was to test the instrument. The BPTOG was validated by two experts in Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Reliability index of 0.76 was obtained using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation. Mean and Standard deviation were used in answering the research questions and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between the academic performance of students in experimental group and those in control. More so, gender has no effect on Biology students’ performance in jigsaw-puzzle group. It was recommended that Biology teachers should adopt Jigsaw-Puzzle Instructional Strategy in this 21st century classroom to encourage group learning among students.

Open Access Review Article

Lumped Elements and Its Existence in Quasi Lumped Element Resonator Antenna

T. M. Bello, A. M. S. Tekanyi, A. D. Usman

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v20i130149

In this paper, the Quasi Lumped Element Resonator Antenna is reviewed. It is composed of Lumped elements. Lumped Elements are passive components whose size across any dimensions should be small to make it a lumped element. The various researches that have been done to come about the various types of basic building blocks of the lumped element are staged in this write up. This review is towards accomplishing the derivation of the component elements used in the design of the Quasi Lumped Element Resonator Antenna. These elements are the interdigital capacitor, inductor and pad capacitors. The pertinent formulae for determining each one of them were all expressed in this review. The formula for calculating the resonance frequency of the Quasi Lumped Element Resonator Antenna was expressed in this review. The equivalent circuit model for the lumped elements were all reviewed and presented. This review brings about how the lumped elements are involved in the design of the Quasi Lumped Element Resonator Antenna.