Open Access Original Research Article

Graphical User Authentication System Resistant to Shoulder Surfing Attack

Oluwaseyifunmitan Osunade, Iyanuoluwa A. Oloyede, Titilayo O. Azeez

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i430126

User authentication is one of the most significant issues in the field of Information Security. The most common and convenient authentication method used is the alphanumeric password  which has significant drawbacks. To overcome the vulnerabilities of traditional methods, graphical password schemes have been developed as possible alternative solutions to text-based scheme. A potential drawback of graphical password schemes is that they are more vulnerable to shoulder surfing than conventional alphanumeric text passwords due to their visual interface. To overcome the shortcoming of existing graphical password schemes this project focuses on developing a graphical authentication system that is resistant to shoulder surfing attack.

Open Access Original Research Article

Government Expenditure and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Nigeria Economy (1981 – 2016)

Sarah Elechi Jeff-Anyeneh, Steve Nkem Ibenta

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i430128

The effect of government expenditure on economic growth in Nigeria for a period of thirty-six (36) years that is, from 1981 to 2016 was the focus of this study. This study was inspired by two leading controversial issues in theoretical literature and empirical studies regarding the effect of government expenditure on economic growth for emerging economies. First, within the theoretical claim, Keynesian school of thoughts assert the presence of positive linkage between government expenditure and economic growth and development, while neoclassical economists refute this assertion and posited a negative association between government expenditure and economic growth and development. Identifying the side of these two arguments that is akin to all economies remains a puzzle among scholars as validation of either theory across the globe is still in vain. Secondly, the direction of relationship/causality between government expenditure and economic growth and development over the years is still not clear, especially for developing countries. Specifically, this study ascertained the effect of government recurrent and capital expenditure on the growth rate of real gross domestic product. We applied the Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) Co-integration and Granger causality test using secondary data from the Central Bank of Nigeria. We found that Nigeria’s economic growth is independent/not affected by government recurrent and capital expenditure. We are of the opinion that the Federal Government through its appointed ministers in collaboration with the legislature review the composition of Federal Government of Nigeria total expenditure by ensuring that capital expenditure takes at least 50% of annual total expenditure. Measures such as reducing foreign training and bogus allowances for political office holders should be tailored towards reducing government consumption expenditures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shear Strengthening of R.C Beams with FRP Using (NSM) Technique

Ahmed H. Abdel-Kareem, Ahmed S. Debaiky, Mohamed H. Makhlouf, M. Abdel-Baset

Advances in Research, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i430129

This paper presents the experimental results of investigations the shear behavior of strengthened reinforced concrete beams by using glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) rods. The strengthening system used GFRP rods were done by Near Surface Mounted technique (NSM), NSM technique contains a groove on the outside surface of the concrete member to adjust the depth to be less than the cover of the member. After cleaning, the epoxy paste was used to fill half of the groove's depth. The particular FRP element is then mounted in the groove. Finally, the groove is filled with epoxy and the too much epoxy is leveled with the outside surface of the concrete. This method enables the fiber reinforcement polymer FRP materials is covered completely by epoxy. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of NSM technique on shear resistance for RC beam. The parameters are considered in this study are effect of the material type used for strengthening (inner steel stirrups and external glass fiber stirrups), effect of FRP rods inclination on strengthened beams, shape with different end anchorage of FRP (strips and rods), and the effect of number of the used FRP rods. This paper involved 13 experimental investigations of half-scale R.C beams. The experimental program included two specimens strengthened with inner steel stirrups, eight specimens strengthened with stirrups of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer GFRP rods with the shape of different end anchorage and angle, and two specimens strengthened with externally bonded GFRP strips. The remaining un-strengthened specimen was assigned as a control one for comparison. The test results included ultimate capacity load, deflection, cracking, and mode of failure. All beams strengthened with GFRP rods showed an increase in the capacity ranging between 14% to 85% comparing to the reference beam, and beams strengthened with GFRP strips showed an increase in the capacity ranging between 7% to 22% comparing to the reference beam.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorating Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on Combined Oral Contraceptive-induced Cardiometabolic Syndrome in Female Guinea Pigs

Adediji Isaac Oluwole, Babatope Stella Adesola, Ezeibe Chiamaka Chris, Adelakun Ayodele Ademola, Oluremi Adeolu Sunday, Adepoju Paul Olusegun, Faloye Taiwo Gideon

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i430130

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on selected biochemical indices for cardiometabolic risk.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Babcock University between December, 2018-May, 2019.

Methods: The study included 32 female guinea pigs which were assigned into 4 groups (A-D) with 8 in each group. Group A animals served as control, group B animals received only monophasic combined oral contraceptives (COC), group C animals received monophasic COC and 50mg/kg of G. lucidum, group D animals received monophasic COC and 100 mg/kg of G. lucidum. All the test animals received their treatment once daily through oral gavage for 12 weeks. All animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose was given to the test groups. Blood sample was collected via cardiac puncture. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2 (Lp-PLA2), high sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined using spectrophotometric methods and ELISA as appropriate. HOMA-IR was calculated using homeostasis model assessment index. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, post hoc, all values were expressed as mean±standard deviation. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: We observed that groups B (25%) and C (25%) animals had significantly higher levels of hsCRP, LpPLA2, TC, TG, LDL, FBG, IGF-1 and HOMA-IR when compared with groups A (25%) and D animals (25%) (p<0.05), however there was no significant statistical difference when groups B and C were compared. Also we observed higher levels of HDL in groups C and D animals when compared with groups A and B animals but not significant statistically.

Conclusion: The use of G. lucidum stymies the development of COC-induced cardiometabolic syndrome in a dose-dependent manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flood Resilience Measures in Buildings on the Flood-plains of Ogbaru, Anambra State, Nigeria

F. O. Ezeokoli, K. C. Okolie, S. U. Onwuka

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i430131

Aim: The study evaluates the flood resilience measures in buildings on flood-plains of Ogbaru, with a view to establishing the extent of its incorporation into the design and construction of Buildings.

Study Design: It was a survey research, questionnaires were distributed to heads of the selected households and building practitioners in the study area. Likewise, physical observations were carried out to substantiate the findings of the questionnaire survey.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Ogbaru Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria for a period of 2 years.

Methodology: Being a survey research, data were collected through structured questionnaire administered to the selected building construction practitioners and occupants in Ogbaru. In addition, interviews and direct observation survey were conducted to substantiate the validity of the questionnaire survey. Accordingly, a total of four hundred and (400) questionnaires were distributed and a total of two hundred and ninety-three (293) questionnaires were completed and returned. This corresponds to a response rate of 73.3%.  Data collected were analyzed using mean score, standard deviation, pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) techniques and z-test.

Results: The study found out that the flood resilience measures are not largely incorporated into the design and construction of buildings. The flood resilience measures currently in use are few and includes raised building floor level or platform, use of concrete floor and tiling, use of embankments, re-routing flood water channels, building walls and floors with none/low permeability materials, raised kitchen appliances and low walls or barriers between streetscape, Also, advanced or sophisticated flood resilience measures such as Automatic window opening panels (flood inlets), water sensors within and outside buildings and hybrid design are rarely used in the study area.

Conclusion: The study concluded by recommending that flood resilience measure should be incorporated into the development/ construction of building within the study area. Also, newer and sustainable flood resilience measures/technologies should be made available and affordable in the study area.