Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Social Entrepreneurship on the Sustainability of Selected Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria

Ann Ogbo, Anthony Igwe, Jesse Ezeobi, Nwanneka Modebe, Ebere Ume Kalu

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i230116

This paper examined the impact of social entrepreneurship on sustainability of business development in Nigeria. The objectives of the study include: to identify major evolution experienced by social enterprise in Nigeria, to identify key challenges in social entrepreneurship in Nigeria, to identify current trends in social entrepreneurship in Nigeria, and to carry out an analysis on sources of funds for financing the social entrepreneurs. Survey approach was the research design used with particular reference to selected small and medium enterprises (SME) in Nigeria. It was observed that political factors, economic factors, socio-cultural factors, cross country factors and technological factors are the major evolution experienced by social enterprise in Nigeria. It was also observed that lack of education in entrepreneurship, lack of financial assistance, comparative disadvantages to business, lack of government support and lack of skilled manpower are the key challenges in social entrepreneurship in Nigeria. The current trends in social entrepreneurship in Nigeria are social media and the role of technology, rise of decentralized micro-giving opportunities, cross-sector partnerships and government drive for an all-inclusive economic growth and development through SME. The analysis carried out on sources of funds for financing the social entrepreneurs are contributions from social entrepreneurs, subventions from government, donor supports, loans and advances and retained earnings/reserves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Grid-connected Response Verification of AC Microgrid under Single Line-to-ground Short Circuit

Maruf A. Aminu

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i230117

In design of power systems, assumptions are made to model the physical systems. The assumptions may not sufficiently reflect the behavior of the system under normal and faulted conditions. Under short circuit conditions, system parameters vary significantly, particularly in microgrids with grid interconnection capabilities. This paper presents the result of validating the response of a microgrid which is capable of grid interconnection and islanding under voltage and reactive power control regimes. The microgrid is modeled to incorporate two wind turbines, each rated 5.5 kW, 400 V. The utility has synchronous generator rated 100 MW, 13.8 kV. Both the utility and microgrid are capable of exchanging active power and reactive power. Single line-to-ground short circuits are introduced and withdrawn at 30.00 s and 32.00 s, respectively. The dynamic responses of the testbed are captured pre-, during- and post-short circuit in grid-connected mode under both control regimes. The response of the testbed is verified to be consistent with established short circuit theory, verifying the validity of the system for short circuit detection and analysis. The testbed can therefore be used for short circuit and related studies, design optimization and power system performance prediction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Allergenic Potential of Anagobaka infant Flours Marketed in the Markets of the District of Abidjan

C. C. A. Yapo-Crezoit, S. E. Kpan, A. Boni, I. Bonouman, J. Kalpy, J. D. N’guessan, A. J. Djaman, M. Dosso

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i230118

The aim is to evaluate the sanitary quality of the infant flours of "Anagobaka" imported and sold on the markets of the district of Abidjan. There are eleven flours of "Anagobaka" distributed as follows, four from Adjamé, four from Abobo and three from Treichville, a local artisanal infant flour. An industrial infant flour has been used as a reference. Moisture and pH were measured by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists and contaminants by microbiological methods. Moisture contents of "Anagobaka" flours ranged from 8.79% ± 0.06 to 12.94% ± 0.49. That of local flours was 6.56% ± 0.21. These values ​​are above the norm of 5%, while the reference has a content which is 3.59% ± 0.2 respecting the norm. However, all these flours have an acidic pH of 5.25 ± 0.01 at 6.83 ± 0.01 After inoculation on Sabouraud chloramphenicol medium with the various suspensions of flours, the species Aspergillus flavus was identified in the brands, Jone Family, Bolero strawberry, Lady B, Fincap , Egg Banana and Glad Family at respective loads of 1400 cfu / g ± 173.21, 11.102 cfu / g ± 200, 9.102 cfu / g ± 200, 6.102 cfu / g ± 100, 4.102 cfu / g ± 100 and 2.102 cfu /g ± 00.( Whereas, the association Aspergillus flavus and Mucor sp was found in the Jone Family brand flour, at a load of 14.102 cfu / g ± 173.21.) All flours were free of other germs. The presence of molds does not meet microbiological standards recommended and represent a danger to the health of these children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strengthening of Composite Steel-Concrete Beams Openings by Adopting Different Reinforcement Methods

Mohamed H. Makhlouf, Hala M. Refat

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i230119

This paper presents an experimental and numerical study carried out to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of concrete-steel composite beams with circular web openings strengthened using two different techniques around openings. The experimental program conducted on nine simply supported beams which were constructed with different variables. One steel beam and eight concrete-steel composite beams were experimentally tested. The tested beams are of 1500 mm length and BFI cross section of steel beam but composite beams were BFI steel section connected with concrete slab had 300 mm width and 70 mm depth, while this connection is done by headed stud shear connector. The tested specimens subjected to positive bending were loaded by one or two line load across the width of the concrete slab. The main parameters were the type of beams, web openings effect, location of web openings, strengthening techniques around openings externally CFRP strips and vertical steel links using steel plates placed on the top and bottom surface of beams anchored with fine threads, and number of CFRP strips layers. The effect of these parameters on the failure of modes, ultimate load, first cracking load and deflection were investigated. Moreover, a finite element models were developed by ANSYS (version 14) to simulate all the tested specimens, experimental test results were compared with FE results obtained. The experimental results showed that both strengthening systems applied in this research were remarkably increased the beam strength, and the capacity retrieve of beams without openings. This study approved that steel links technique gave more prominent simplicity of use and low cost. FEM models were in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones. However, the calculated ultimate loads were slightly higher than the experimental ultimate loads up to 10%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) - Aquaculture Convergence: An Experience from Tripura, India

Toko Yemin, A. Sarkar, P. Pal, P. Biswas, Y. J. Singh

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v19i230120

Being purposed at understanding the utilization efficiency of excavated and/or reclaimed ponds as newly created assets under the MGNREGS, the present study was conducted at Dhalai district of Tripura state (India) with the objectives to: i) comprehend the physical performance of pond excavation and reclamation works under MGNREGS; and ii) peruse the nature of harnessing of the created assets at beneficiary level during post work execution phase of the scheme. While the first objective was addressed through utilizing secondary information, the second one was attained through administering separate sets of pre-tested structured interview schedule over 92 MGNREGS beneficiaries and 27 functionaries remained responsible for effective implementation of the scheme. Study revealed that the district had executed 16717 no. of works combining both pond excavation and reclamation jobs during 2012-13 to 2016-17, of which the shares of pond excavation and reclamation works were 81.77% and 18.23%, respectively. Despite such good physical performance in work execution, very poor accrual of average annual fish productivity (414.25 kg ha-1) was recorded at the fish ponds of beneficiaries. It lagged by 5.98 times from the state average and 5.74 times from the average of even Dhalai district, where the study was conducted. Although 66.30% of the beneficiaries of MGNREGS had no previous experience of culture fisheries as they became first ever owners of pond, a staggering 67.39% of them didn’t receive any knowledge vis-a-vis skill enabling training on scientific aquaculture, which led to disappointing extents of their knowledge (34.75%) and adoption (32.85%) of scientific aquaculture. Garrett ranking revealed ‘lack of systematic and timely supply of critical inputs from the Fisheries Department’ and ‘lack of training facilities’ to be the two prime perceived constraints of the beneficiary respondents. The two most important suggestions emanated from them were: ‘timely provisioning of critical inputs from the Dept. of Fisheries’ and ‘arranging of more longer duration hands-on training programmes to make those really worthy for the fish farmers’.