Open Access Original Research Article

Carbon Sequestration Potential and Economic Value in Agroforestry Parkland to Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae) in Central Africa: A Case Study to Department of Poli (Northern Region in Cameroon)

Awe Djongmo Victor, Noiha Noumi Valery, Zapfack Louis, Vroh Bi Tra Aimé, Saïdou Aliou

Advances in Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i530100

The vegetation and the afforestation of agricultural land non-forest represent a potential increase in carbon stocks which could, under certain conditions and within certain limits, compensate part of the emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels and deforestations. Quantification of stocks of biomass and carbon dioxide contained in agroforestry systems has become an international priority within the framework of the implementation of REDD+ mechanism. Estimates of stocks of carbon in woody biomass, dead organic matter, belowground biomass, litter, herbaceous and lianas plant biomass were incorporated in allometric equation based on non-destructive method. The total carbon stock evaluated in the parkland of Tectona grandis was 207.34 ton/3ha out of which woody biomass accounted for 130.19 ton/3ha belowground biomass (40.4 ton/3ha), dead organic matter (22.85 ton/3ha), litter (9.09 ton/3ha), herbaceous plant biomass (2.28 ton/3ha) and lianas (2.53 ton/3ha). The aboveground biomass therefore contributed approximately 62.80 % of the total stock of carbon assessed. This show the considerable contribution of Tectona grandis parkland to climate change mitigation in Cameroon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Soil Microbial Population and Enzymes Activities under Distillery Spentwash Irrigation

Karthika Vadivel, G. Rajannan, S. Avudainayagam

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i530101

Spentwash is a rich source of organic matter and nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sulphur. The effect of different levels and methods of spentwash application on soil enzymatic activity was examined through a field experiment. The field experiment was conducted using Sesame VRI (Sv) 2 as a test crop at Research and Development Farm, The Sakthi Sugars Pvt. Ltd., Appakkudal, Erode District. The experiment was formulated with six treatments with four replications, laid out in Randomised Block design. As per the treatment schedule the calculated quantity of biomethanated distillery spentwash for pre-sown application was uniformly applied to the plots before sowing viz., 25, 50, 75,100% along with recommended dose of NP for four treatments viz., 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and Recommended dose NPK was treated as one treatment (control).The soil samples were collected at 30 days intervals and analysed for the changes in soil microbial population and enzyme activities. The results of the study showed that the microbial population and enzymatic activities of the soil were substantially increased throughout the crop growth period due to biomethanated distillery spentwash application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Level of Awareness of Health Hazards Associated with Operations of Medium-Scale DPK Vendors Using Motorized Pumps with ASTs in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria

Moshood Liman Ibrahim, Henry Olawale Sawyerr, Adeolu Adedotun Timothy, Wasiu Temitope Shehu, Khadijat Otubela, Lateefat Oladimeji

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i530102

Introduction: The continuous trend in the increase of diseases and death associated mostly with hazards from the use and transportation of kerosene; coupled with tens of millions of Nigerians depending on it - as a substitute for stoves, cooking and an erratic electric power supply for lamp illumination, this could be as a result of low awareness of these risks amongst kerosene suppliers and retailers. Kerosene being a highly inflammable substance is a major factor in various fire burn injuries, child poisoning incidences reported across the country. Thus, numerous studies have been conducted on petrol stations and refineries; with little focusing on kerosene vendors and the operations of these vendors.

Objectives: This study assessed the level of awareness of health hazards associated with operations of medium-scale DPK vendors using motorized pumps with Aboveground Storage Tanks (ASTs) in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The study adopted a purposive sampling technique. Data was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire (to elicit the information on the operation of DPK vendors, health hazards and safety measure with their operations), observational checklist and Handheld Germin (GPSmap® 78) GPS.

Results: There was over 2000% increase in the establishment of DPK vendors within Ilorin metropolis from two in 2007 to seventy-six in 2017 with highest (48) found in Ilorin West LGA. A higher percentage of the DPK vendors (77.6%) lack the awareness on the health hazards associated with their operations; with a large proportion of the DPK vendors not engaging in basic safety practices. Few (7.9%) have fire extinguishers and majority (88.5%) of the DPK vendors not using the personal protective equipment (PPEs). The geospatial assessment of the DPK vendors also revealed that only two fire stations are found within Ilorin metropolis with 71% of the DPK vendors lacking the knowledge of their locations and all were ignorant of the fire station emergency numbers in case of fire mishaps. There is significant association between basic safety precaution practices and awareness on health and environmental hazards among DPK vendors. 

Conclusion: The study revealed there is an uncontrolled proliferation of DPK vendors, low awareness level on the health hazards associated with their operations, lack of compliance to basic safety practices and high level of non-compliance to the use of PPEs. There is need for massive awareness campaign on the various health hazards associated with DPK vendors operations, basic precaution practices, the use of safety wears, fire stations emergency numbers and the precautions to avoid fire outbreaks and other disasters associated with their trade is sacrosanct.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Lubrication on the Wear Parameters of Metals Using Pin-on-Disk Test Rig

C. F. Onyeanusi, S. C. Nwigbo, N. B. Anosike, C. A. Nwajude

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i530103

Friction and wear control of movable parts in machines remain a critical challenge in the industries. Determination of measurement to control this often involves both the material and the lubricant. A wear test experiment using pin-on-disk apparatus to determine the wear pattern on a sample of aluminium and copper materials, lubricated with vegetable oil of palm kernel origin was conducted. Wear parameters, which include frictional coefficient, wear rate, and heat generation (temperature) were evaluated alongside thermal stress-strains on the pin on disk. Results showed that under the same conditions, the coefficient of friction reduces with the application of lubricant up to 84% and 7% for aluminium and copper respectively. The wear pattern for both materials when lubricated were evaluated and compared with dry condition to establish the relationships.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Hazards Associated with Operations of Medium-Scale Dual Purpose Kerosene Vendors Using Motorized Pumps with Aboveground Storage Tanks in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria

Moshood Liman Ibrahim, Henry Olawale Sawyerr, Aliyu Nda Isiaku

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i530104

Introduction: The use of Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) as a means of cooking and power supply in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized especially among the over 70% of Nigerians living in poverty. It is a highly hazardous product and the adverse environmental health effects from the use of this product remain widespread. Thus, due to the scarcity of epidemiological studies, potential harm and risks of kerosene, the present study was carried out.

Aim and Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the environmental health hazards associated with operations of medium-scale DPK vendors using motorized pumps with aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) in Ilorin metropolis and as such estimate the numbers of medium-scale DPK vendors, identify their locations using the Geographic Information System (GIS) tool and assess the likely environmental health hazards associated with the operations of these DPK vendors.

Methodology: Purposive sampling technique was deployed in this study and data was collected using a structured questionnaire and handheld Germin (GPSmap® 78) GPS.

Results: The study revealed that about 76 medium-scale DPK vendors with ASTs are found in Ilorin metropolis with 48(63.2%) found in Ilorin West LGA, 18(23.6%) in Ilorin South and 10(13.2%) in Ilorin East. Over 80% of the DPK vendors have their ASTs in close proximity to major roads, 68.4% in close proximity to residential buildings, 30.3% in close proximity to a water source and 7% reported the incidence of kerosene spillage. The test of association between the operations of medium-scale DPK vendors and associated environmental health hazards was found to be significant at (p<0.05); while ArcGIS 10.4 software was employed in showing the spatial distribution of the DPK vendors within Ilorin metropolis.

Conclusion: Conclusively, this study shows the activities of the DPK vendors causes high environmental health hazards which directly impact both environmental health and health of the population

Recommendations: Stringent enforcement activities by the Environmental Health Officers (EHO's) on adherence to stipulated setbacks from buildings and major roads; massive enlightenment on the various health hazards associated with DPK vendors operations; and government, through the state assembly, should enact laws to curb the uncontrolled proliferation of medium-scale DPK vendors in Ilorin metropolis and storage of toxic and flammable substances.