Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Degradation and Reduction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Marine Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Marine Environments of Niger Delta

Bright Obidinma Uba, Edna Ifeoma Chukwura, Ebele Linda Okoye, Onyedikachi Ubani, Charles Onuora Chude, Ugochukwu Christopher Akabueze

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i330090

Aims: To determine the in vitro degradation and reduction of aromatic hydrocarbons by marine bacteria isolated from contaminated marine environments of Niger Delta.

Study Design: Nine treatments and nine controls designs were set up in triplicates containing 100 mL of sterile modified mineral basal medium in 500 mL conical flasks supplemented with 1 mg /L of xylene, anthracene and pyrene each; nine marine hydrocarbon degraders and incubated at 24 ºC for 24 days study. The nine treatments and control set ups designated as ANT1, XYL2, PYR3, ANT4, PYR5, ANT6, XYL7, XYL8, PYR9 and CTRL (Without hydrocarbons) were used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbons degradability and reduction by the marine bacteria.  

Place and Duration of Study: The studied sites were Abonema Wharf Water Front in Akuku-Toru Local Government Area, Nembe Water-Side in Port Harcourt Local Government Area and Onne Light Flow Terminal Seaport located in Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria between September, 2014 and March, 2017.

Methodology: A laboratory scale study was carried on six composite samples of the sediment and water samples from the three studied areas using enrichment, screening, phenotypical, degradation and TLC techniques.

Results: The results showed that the three studied areas harbour numerous promising aromatic degrading bacterial strains belonging to the genera: Providencia, Alcaligenes, Brevundimonas, Myroides, Serratia, and Bacillus. The bacterial strains especially Serratia marcescens XYL7 significantly (P = .05) had 99.50 ± 0.05 % and 60.00 ± 0.02 % degradations in weights of xylene and pyrene, respectively while Alcaligenes faecalis PYR5 significantly (P =.05) degraded 97.40 ± 0.01 % in weight of anthracene. TLC result revealed evidences of large spots size reductions or losses of test samples compare to control samples with minor spot sizes.

Conclusion: Thus, the outstanding degradative abilities of these strains could be exploited in bioremediation campaigns in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Construction of Knowledge Test on Large Cardamom Cultivation Practices in Arunachal Pradesh

Bai Koyu, Rajkumar Josmee Singh, L. Devarani, Ram Singh, L. Hemochandra

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i330091

The knowledge test was developed to measure the knowledge of large cardamom growers. All 32 items were primarily fabricated on the basis of indorsing rational rather than root memorization and discriminate the sound knowledgeable large cardamom growers from the ailing knowledgeable ones.The scores from selected respondents were subjected to item analysis, consisting of item difficulty index and item discrimination index.In the final selection, the scale consisted of 17 items with ranging from 30-80 and discrimination index ranging from 0.30 to 0.55. The reliability of knowledge test being developed was tested by using Split-Half method and it was found to be 0.704.

Open Access Original Research Article

Training and Manpower Development Techniques Adopted in Nigerian Breweries Plc Impact on National Development

F. Fomsi Esther, C. Ogoke Charles

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i330092

Aims: The study primarily aimed at assessing the techniques the Nigerian breweries adopts in its staff training and development for efficient performance and enhanced productivity; and its impact on national development.

Study Design: The study was guided by two objectives which were translated into research questions. The research design comprised of survey and ex-post facto.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted on Nigerian Breweries Plc Aba, Abia state of Nigeria, between July   2017 and May 2018. 

Methodology: The population was the company’s entire permanent staff numbering 445, comprising 10 managers and 435 non-managers. Stratified random sampling method was used to select a sample of 184 staff. Instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was determined using experts in Educational Technology and Measurement and Evaluation, while its reliability was determined using Crombach Alpha method with a coefficient of 0.74 obtained. Frequency and simple percentages were used to analyze the research questions.

Results: Out of the 184 staff, between 90 and 183 variously identified coaching, job rotation, apprenticeship, understudying and induction as forms of on-the-job training techniques commonly adopted in the company. Also staff response on non training but motivational techniques positively high in the areas of Free Medical Services 184; Free Transport 102; Transport Allowance 184; Christmas Bonus 184 and others 130.Fewer numbers ranging between 8 and 65 variously identified classroom assignment, discussion and conferences, committee assignment, film, TV and cinema, etc off-the-job training techniques.

Conclusion: The study revealed among others, that on-the-job training techniques were commonly adopted and considered most effective too. It also showed that the company’s manpower development was not based on training alone but also on other non-training staff welfare schemes designed to motivate workers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Canonical Correlation Analysis across Vegetation and Soil Properties of the Disturbed and Undisturbed Coastal Forest Ecosystems

Elly Josephat Ligate, Can Chen

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i330093

This study presents comparative initial information about canonical correlation across forest stand parameters, diversity indices and soil properties in undisturbed forest sites (IFS), agriculture disturbed sites (ADS) and livestock disturbed sites (DGS). Data were collected from Uzigua Forest Reserve in Tanzania. Forty- seven sample plots of 25 m × 25 m were randomly established on IFS, ADS and DGS from which tree inventory data and 141 soil samples were drawn. Data were subjected into Canoco windows 4.5 software for multivariate analyses and comparisons across IFS, ADS and DGS. The correlation of tree stand parameters (TSP) and soil physical properties (SPP) were F=1.207, p=0.242 in IFS, F=2.400, p=0.012 in ADS and F=0.529, p=0.938 in DGS. For soluble bases and TSP were F=2.448, p=0.018 in IFS, F=0.687, p=0.790 in ADS and F=0.743, p=0.808 in DGS. Carbon, nitrogen and potassium (CNP) and TSP were F=0.816, p=0.572 in IFS, F=0.687, p=0.790 in ADS and F=0.070, p=0.020 in DGS. The SPP and Shannon indices had F=1.103, p<0.388 in IFS, F=0.520, p=0.714 in ADS and F=0.932, p=0.444 in DGS. The SPP and Independent Value Index (IVI) were F=0.042, p=0.996 in IFS, F=0.819, p=0.620 in ADS and F=0.633, p=0.724 in DGS. Soluble bases and equitability were F=0.119, p=0.968 in IFS, F=0.001, p=0.001 in ADS and F=0.011, p=0.001 in DGS. The CNP and IVI had F=4.246, p=0.014 in IFS, F=2.729, p=0.018 in ADS and F=2.007, p=0.060 in DGS. The mean higher canonical correlation in the non-disturbed sites indicates that crop-agriculture and livestock grazing affect the interplays between forest vegetation and soil properties. Therefore, human activity disturbs the structure and soil properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biomarker Ratios and Stablecarbon Isotopes to Describe Crude Oils Characteristics in the Murzuq Basin (Libya)

S. Aboglila, A. Abdulgader, A. Albaghdady, O. Hlal, E. Farifr

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/air/2019/v18i330094

This present paper includes a detailed evaluation of specific biomarkers together with stable carbon isotope (δ13C) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and Gas Chromatograph–Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC–IR–MS). Eight crude oil samples were collected from the A, B, H (east) and H (west) Fields, located in the Murzuq Basin, Libya. Stable Carbon isotope data (δ13C) together with biomarker ratios data of individual hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, terpenes, hopanes, steranes and aromatic have been determined in crude oils to delineate their bacterial degradation, source facies, organic matter precursors, depositional conditions and a variation of maturation. Based on source-specific parameters including n-C19 alkane, % C27S, %C28S, %C29S, %C23TT, %C30αβ, %rC28, DBT/P, CPI, Pr/Ph, Ts/Tm, dh 30/h 30, 1 MN, 2 MN,         26-27 DMN, 15 DMN, 236 TMN, 146-135 TMN, 125 TMN, 136 TMN ratios and δ13C‰ of saturates and aromatics fractions. Such oils showed non-biodegradation, n-C19 peak proved oils generated from a Lower Palaeozoic source rocks as emphasizedvian-C19 peak, the dominance of C29steranes over C27 and C28 with light Carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) values. The abundances of isosterane C29, C27, C28.Tricyclohexaprenol and bacteriohopane polyols and aminopolyols, recommended as mixture bioprecursors of tricyclic terpenes and hopanes, furthermore regular sterane ratio gives values characteristic of Lower Palaeozoic marine source rocks and holding green algae and most likely a quantity of contribution from acritarchs. Carbon preference indices (CPIs)>0.9 pointed to an anoxic deposition, dibenzothiophene to phenanthrene (DBT/Prange 0.49 - 0.58) recommend a siliciclastic source rather than carbonate and/or evaporate saline deposition. The ratios of CPIs, pristane/n-C17 and phytane/n-C18, n-alkanes (C16 to C22) against (C23 to C33), Ts/Tm, C30diahopane/C30hopane, methylnaphthalene, dimethyl naphthalene and trimethyl naphthalene indicated that the oils analysed are mature except the B Field oil being slightly less mature than the A, H (east) and  H (west) Fields oils.