Open Access Original Research Article

On the Dynamics of an Epidemic Model with Multiple Transmission Ways and Pollution

Arkan N. Mustafa

Advances in Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32272

An epidemiological model with existence of disease and pollutant has been proposed and analyzed, the formulation of the model is described and the uniqueness and boundness of solution of the system are discussed. The stability analysis of the non-negative equilibrium points is performed. Finally numerical simulation is used to show that increasing the values of  external disease transmit ion rate and rates at which the susceptible, infected and recovered individuals decreasing due to the toxicant in proposed model, the population will die out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Understanding the Relationship between Unemployment and Inflation in Nigeria

Odo Stephen Idenyi, O. Elom-Obed Favour, O. Nwachukwu Johnson, O. Okoro Thomas

Advances in Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32218

This study investigated the relationship between unemployment and inflation in Nigeria from 1980-2015. The model specified unemployment as a function of inflation, money supply is a % GDP, total government expenditure % of GDP. The statistical tests used were causality test, VECM test, co integration test. Based on the above tests carried out, the study found out that:  Inflation significantly impacted unemployment in Nigeria both in the long run and short run within the period under review. This implies that increase in government expenditure reduces unemployment, it can also be inferred from the result that government spending creates employment to the extent that inflation remains within the single digit limit. Based on the results, the study recommended that government should use discretionary policy that would reduce unemployment by boosting government expenditure and maintain stability in money supply by using the traditional monetary instruments (such as open market operation, discount rate and special directive) to reduce the quantity of money in circulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long-Term Rainfall Data Analysis for Contingency Crop Planning for Indore Region of Madhya Pradesh

Sushma Parmar, Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Debabrata Nath, Ranjeet Singh Chaudhary, Narendra K. Patidar

Advances in Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32275

In order to weatherproof the region and prepare befitting contingent crop planning, the rainfall patterns, magnitudes, probabilities of Indore region of Malwa plateau of Madhya Pradesh were assessed systematically. The study revealed that probability of receiving annual rainfall of 663.9, 799, 969, 1163 and 1357 mm was computed to be 90, 75, 50, 25 and 10% respectively in the region. The numbers of rainy days revealed a decreasing trend with time. The probability of occurrence of weekly rainfall of 0-9; 0-22; 1.1 – 51.7; 1.6-101.7 and 2.0- 175.9 mm was estimated to be 90, 75, 50, 25 and 10 percent, respectively. The initial and conditional probabilities of rainfall (Markov chain probability) of this region of Malwa plateau, for the 8 decades i.e. from 1930 to 2010 with a limit of 25 mm have been worked out. The gamma distribution function was found to be the best fit function for 2, 3 and 5 days’ consecutive rainfall. The maximum rainfall for 2, 3 and 5 days with a recurring period of one year was 167.3, 223.7 and 266.7 mm, respectively. Similarly, for 2 and 5 year recurring period the maximum rainfall was estimated to be 206.7, 241.5, 298.5; and 266.2, 312.6, 315.9 mm in 2, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, long-term rainfall data analysis for the region would provide a useful information for necessary weatherproofing of agricultural crops and crop planning, in terms of selection of crops/cultivars, efficient water and nutrient management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Attitude Regarding Roundworm Infection among Pet Owners of Punjab, India

Prateek Jindal, Rashmi Thakur

Advances in Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32810

Aims: To access the awareness and attitude regarding roundworm infection among pet owners of Punjab, India.

Study Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted on randomly selected pet owners who visited Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, GADVAS University, Ludhiana for the treatment of their pets. These owners belonged to different districts of Punjab. The data was collected between August 1st, 2016 and January 31st, 2017.

Methodology: A total of 150 pet owners were interviewed with a questionnaire. The respondents were presented with a questionnaire of 20 questions containing both open and close ended questions designed to obtain information on different aspects of roundworm dis­eases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc.

Results: The results demonstrated that the very small proportion of pet owners (<35%) knew about the roundworm infection. Only forty four respondents (29.3%) reported that they knew this disease can spread from infected animal to a healthy animal and only 20% pet owners were aware of the zoonotic aspect of the disease as they knew the disease can spread from infected animals to healthy humans. More than 70% respondents indicated that veterinarians never discussed the potential hazards of zoonoses. The major proportion of pet owners had very poor knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to roundworm infection.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the pet owners do not have even a fair knowledge on parasitic helminths and are seriously unaware about risks and various preventive measures against roundworms.The study highlights that one of the major strategies in prevention and control of roundworms is to improve the information about knowledge, attitude and practices in this area. The extension agencies and veterinarians need to focus their attention towards providing information to pet owners on parasitic infections.

Open Access Review Article

Food Processing by Pulse Electric Field: A Review

Deepika Kohli, N. C. Shahi

Advances in Research, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32343

The aim of the present study is to know about the effects of pulse electric field on food and compare it with other thermal methods of food processing. Food quality, food safety, convenience, freshness, healthy food, natural flavor and taste with extended shelf-life are the main criteria for the demand made by today’s consumers. Thermal methods of food preservation gives low quality food as compare to non-thermally treated food product. Pulse Electric Field processing (PEF) is a non-thermal processing technology to kill microorganism present in food by the application of short pulses of high electric fields for micro-seconds to milliseconds. It preserves the flavor of foods, vitamin content, and color of foods. PEF technology aims to offer consumers high-quality foods product. PEF technology is considered superior to traditional thermal processing methods because it greatly reduces detrimental changes in the sensory and physical properties of foods. It can be used in replace of thermally processed food because it produces the foods that have the good quality as compare to thermally processed food.