Open Access Original Research Article

On gso-Closed Sets in Topological Spaces

M. I. Irshad, P. Elango

Advances in Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2019/46559

In this paper, a new kind of closed sets called generalized semi open-closed sets (briefly gso-closed sets) are introduced in topological spaces. A subset A of a topological space X is called a gso-closed set if A is both a g-closed set and a semi-open set in X. The properties of the gso-closed sets are investigated and they are compared with the existing relevant generalized closed sets. The generalized semi-open continuous function between topological spaces are also defined and their properties are investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Kitchen Gardening in Punjab

Simrat Pal, Ravinder Kaur

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2019/45056

Kitchen gardening project is a revolutionary step to increase vegetable production, enable people to grow insect-free vegetables gainfully using empty tins, old utensils, clay flower pots and extra space in front and backyard and provide cheap and organic vegetables to the households. The present study was conducted with the objective to study the status of kitchen gardening. This study selected the two villages and comprised of households as respondents who were adopting the kitchen gardening. Thus, a total of 79 respondents comprised the sample of the study from two villages. The data were collected through personal interview method with the help of a structured schedule. The study highlighted that half of the population from both the villages engaged in kitchen gardening and almost all the adopters procured the seeds from market shops. Most of the adopters use the produced fully at their home for their family needs. Half of the women from near the city category participating in kitchen gardening operations with their husband. Almost all the adopters grew seasonal vegetables in their kitchen garden and some of them also grew fruits in their garden. Majority of the adopters manage the insect pest attack and diseases with the cultural/ biological methods. This study suggested that special motivational programmes about kitchen gardening should be organised for the involvement of women; so that more women should get attracted towards kitchen gardening and demonstration plots of kitchen gardening should be maximised to attract the community. The sale centres should be maximised for the easier access of the community at village level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Quality Responses of Mango Chips Dried to Different Moisture Contents, Packaged and Stored for Six Months

D. A. Oppong, P. Kumah, P. K. Tandoh

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2019/46296

Fresh mango is a delicate fruit with high perishability and postharvest losses. Dried fruits are highly susceptible to mold infection and moisture reabsorption. There fruits must be packed well and stored immediately after drying to extend its shelf life. This study was thus to determine the effect of packaging methods on the quality of mango chips dried to three moisture content and stored for six months at tropical ambient condition. Mango chips (10%, 15% and 20% moisture contents) obtained from FriutProtech Consortium, Kintampo, were packed in different packages and stored for 6 months in a 3×5 factorial in completely randomized design and replicated 3 times before physico-chemical attributes were studied. Results revealed that mango chips at 10% moisture content, vacuum-packed in polypropylene and polyethylene were significantly different (p≤0.01), the driest, firmest and most crispy. They also were richest in vitamin C high in pH, highest in TSS and high in TTA. Chips at 20% moisture content in plastic pack (clamshells) were lowest in most of the measured parameters. It can be concluded that, mango chips should be dried to, at most, 15% moisture content and vacuum-packaged in polypropylene or polyethylene if they are to maintain their quality and be stored for longer periods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Sugar Beet Genotypes and Harvesting Schedules on Yield and Quality Parameters

Kumar D. Lamani, S. I. Halikatti

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2019/46946

Field experiment was undertaken during 2005-06 to 2006-07 to study the various agro-techniques for sugar beet cultivation for Northern Karnataka at Agricultural Research Station, Bailhongal, Belgaum district (Karnataka) under irrigated condition. The experiment consisted of 18 treatment combinations comprising of sugar beet genotypes and harvesting schedules with split plot design comprised of three replications. The significantly higher yield and quality attributes were observed by Cauvery genotypes. There is a need to standardize the suitable harvesting months for higher tuber yield. With respect to harvesting dates, tuber harvested at 5 and 5 ½ months after sowing recorded significantly higher tuber yield than rest of the harvesting schedule. Therefore, Cauvery genotype harvested 5 ½ months after sowing was found more economical and sustainable production technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Non-Reflective Events in Optical Fiber Communication Cables

M. O. Durodola, J. Ilouno

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2019/47034

This paper presents the impact of non-reflective events (events caused by splices, macrobends or microbends) in optical fiber transmission and also suggests ways of minimizing the losses accrued from these events. During installation of optical fibers, cables that are not properly and professionally laid (i.e. poor splicing, bending radius exceeded etc.) lead to high losses in the links which manifest as poor or interrupted networks. An Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) was used to locate and measure these non-reflective events. The OTDR used backscatter changes in detecting the events in the fiber optics under tests and the results were displayed in OTDR traces. The non-reflective events were seen to have very high impact on the cumulative loss in the optical fiber links and contributed about 97.14% to the cumulative loss as observed in the three optical fiber cores (core 03, core 19, and core 36). Hence, minimizing the number of non-reflective events in any optical fiber communication system where possible should be the target for any optical fiber technician or engineer.