Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Growth Parameters and Yield Parameters of Three Cultivars of Potato Grown in Hamelmalo, Eritrea

Mulue Girmay, V. K. Sharma, G. Sethumadhava Rao

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44315

The experiment was conducted at Hamelmalo Agricultural College farm station from September 2014 to January 2015. The design of the experiment was randomized complete block in triplicate.  The growth parameters (plant height, stem number, leaf number at 30 and 60 days after planting) and yield variables were recorded in ton/ha. Among the cultivars; Zafira scored the highest number of plants per plot (32.6 plants/plot) as compared to Picasso (25.53 plants/plot) and Ajiba (22.07 plants/plot). The cultivars Ajiba and Zafira scored the highest vegetative growth. The highest growth and yield parameters were obtained from cultivars Ajiba (29.33 ton/ha) followed by Zafira 27.99 ton/ha) though both cultivars had the highest incidences of blights and collar rot diseases. The correlation analysis indicated there was no significant association among insect pests and yield ha-1. However, the growth parameters showed significant correlations with yield ha-1 at 0.01 level of significance.


Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Personal, Parental and Familial Characteristics on Sibling Relationship of Twins

Madhumati K. Mantur, Sunanda Itagi

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44989

The research on “Impact of personal, parental and familial characteristics on sibling relationship of twins” was conducted during 2016. The study consists 39 pairs of twins. The respondents selected for the study were belonging to 10-24 years age range from Hubli and Dharwad cities. The self structured schedule was used to gather personal information. Socio-economic status of their family was assessed by SES scale developed by Agarwal et al. Zygosity was assessed based on the physical similarities like height, weight, skin color, hair color etc.  The sibling relationship was assessed by using Sibling Relationship Checklist (SRC) developed by Lord and Borthwicks. The data was analyzed by using fallowing statistical tools like frequency and percentage, Karl Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient and Chi square.  The results revealed that majority of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were had healthy sibling relationship (93.80 % and 76.10 % respectively). Age factor was negatively significantly correlated with sibling relationship of twins indicating that increase in age of the twins increase in the sibling relationship. Ordinal position is not much effecting because they born at same time. There was non-significant association was found, however there was highly significant relationship was observed between family size and sibling relationship of twins, indicating that small family helped to possess healthy sibling relationship among twins. Findings showed that there was no significant association and relation between parent’s education and occupation with sibling relationship. And there was no association and relation was observed between socio-economic status of the family and sibling relationship of twins. However genetic relatedness, same age individuals and sharing of common environment before and after birth, same home and school environment may add to healthy sibling relationship among twins.


Open Access Original Research Article

High Serotype Diversity of Non-polio Enteroviruses Isolated in Ghana during Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance, 2010-2014

John Kofi Odoom, Ishmael Adziati, Elijah Quansah, Keren Attiku, Nana Afia Asante Ntim, Jacob Arthur-Quarm, Miriam Eshun, Evangeline Obodai, Jacob Samson Barnor

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44423

Aim: Sabin-like polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) isolated from acute flaccid paralysis cases have continued to circulate in the country. However, no wild poliovirus has been detected in Ghana since the last case of poliomyelitis in 2008. This decline has been attributed to active surveillance and intensive oral polio vaccine immunization. As we approach polio-free world, surveillance of NPEVs implicated in acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is useful for establishing temporal and geographical patterns of circulation and diversity.

Study Design: This was a retrospective study using stool samples store at -20°C.

Place and Duration: The investigation was carried out at the WHO-accredited Regional Reference  Polio Laboratory, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana from January 2010 to December 2014.

Methods: We investigated stool samples collected from 1422 patients with AFP from 2010-2014 across the country. We tested the samples for human enterovirus infection using standard cell culture methods. Serological identification of NPEV was done using RIVM-specific antisera pools A-G and H-R (The Netherlands). Untyped (UT)-NPEVs were sequenced directly using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The pan-enterovirus (Pan-EV) primer (CDC, Atlanta, GA) used in the PCR assay targeted a highly conserved VP1 region of the enterovirus.

Results: Two hundred and thirty-five cases were confirmed as positive on RD cells indicating a NPEV isolation rate of 16.5%. Of these RD positive isolates, 110 (46.8%) were further analyzed using sero-neutralization and 28 different NPEVs serotypes were identified. Two additional sero-types E71 and EV A76 were identified by sequencing. All the 30 serotypes belong to four species group: 5 belong to HEV-A, 23 HEV-B, 1 HEV-C and 1 HEV-D. The mean age of the children was 3 years with a range of 8 months to 21 years and standard deviation of 3. Most infections occurred in children within the age group of 2-6 years with no statistical difference p>0.975. The NPEVs were found to circulate throughout the 5-year period and across the country, with the highest prevalence (24%) in the Brong Ahafo region. 

Conclusion: The study provided definitive evidence on the circulation of NPEV serotypes implicated in AFP in a polio-free country, and highlights the importance of monitoring NPEVs that mimic polio as we approach polio-free world and continuous vaccination for interruption of transmission.


Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Model for Yield Estimation of ‘Gala Red Lum’ Apples before Bloom in Northern India

Tabasum Mushtaq, S. A. Mir, Nageena Nazir, T. A. Raja, A. H. Pandith, Khalid Rasool, Mushtaq A. Lone

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43391

In order to solve the problems of damage in crops due to natural disasters like frosts and hail storm, it is common to insure crops against the damage. After damage, crop loss must be evaluated by comparing what amount of crop is left with the amount that would have been obtained under normal conditions. Potential crop must be evaluated quickly through the use of measurements obtained at the beginning of the cycle of tree’s growth. The objective of the study was to develop the best fitted model for estimating yield on the population of Gala Red Lum plants before bloom. The data used for this research were primary data collected from high density apple block SKUAST-Kashmir (HDP, Plate-1). The study was undertaken at experimental field of Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-Kashmir, Srinagar, J&K, India, during the years 2015 and 2016. The measurements of various tree/fruit characteristics in Gala Red Lum were recorded. The developed model was validated using k-fold cross validation technique and bootstrap validation.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum L. Clove Extract Against Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Alice Nabatanzi

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44151

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is responsible for causing crown gall disease which causes major economic losses and increases the host’s susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. Although there has been much research on the effectiveness of Allium sativum (garlic) against human pathogenic bacteria, there are very few studies on its effect on plant bacteria, especially Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

Aims: To determine  the in-vitro antibacterial activity of   A. sativum clove crude extract against Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Parasitology and Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University between March and May 2016.

Methodology: Agar disc diffusion method was used to screen for antibiotic susceptibility. Indole test was used for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the garlic extracts. The significant antibacterial activity of the active extract was compared with the standard antibiotic, methyl bromide. Thus, methyl bromide was the positive control and distilled water was the negative control.

Results: The garlic extract had a mean inhibition zone of 12 mm and an MIC and MBC of 50 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect of the garlic clove extract was proportional to its concentration thus the higher the concentration of garlic clove extract, the more the inhibitory effects.

Conclusion: The results indicate that garlic clove extract has the ability to both inhibit and kill Agrobacterium tumefaciens in a manner similar to that exhibited in other bacterial pathogens, though at higher concentrations.