Open Access Original Research Article

Communication between Patients and Nurses, Midwives and Doctors Using Focus Group Discussions

Mustapha Alhassan

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44704

Background: In the everyday understanding of communication between patients and health professionals, emphasis should be on effective communication in providing effective health care. This, therefore, leads to a special relationship in the health setting. The nature of the relationship depends on how the two parties understand the communication sequence. Communication skills training has been found to improve doctor-patient communication. Some methods used in studying doctor-patient communication are self-report measures, interviews, observational studies, randomised controlled studies, and focus group discussions.

Researchers have defined focus group discussions (FGDs) as a procedure used in gathering data moderated by a researcher, and it is usually focused on ideas, knowledge, and thinking of participants. In Ghana, nurses, midwives, and doctors do not provide information to patients on their diseases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore Tamale Teaching Hospital nurses, midwives, and doctors’ descriptions of the information needs of Tamale Teaching Hospital patients.

Methods: The design was semi-structured discussions with three groups. A convenient sample of doctors and a random sample of nurses and midwives from Tamale Teaching Hospital were participants. The researcher (MA) developed questions, which were used in stimulating the focus group discussions. MA facilitated the discussions and the research assistant (AAM) took notes and did the tape recording. To ensure reliable results, there was involvement of colleagues who had good knowledge of FG methods and participants for their viewpoints and confirmation.                      Excel database was used in the compilation, analyses, and syntheses. Data were collected in May 2013.

Results: The results of the FG discussion showed that the name/nature of proposed treatment, the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed treatment, alternative treatment procedures, advantages and disadvantages of alternative treatment were of concern to patients and needs special attention.

Conclusions: These findings are consistent with earlier studies that patients were not given adequate information on their diseases. The findings from this study showed that patients in Tamale Teaching Hospital need a lot more information on their treatment.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Solar Radiation Characteristics in Continental Climatic Zone by Using Insolation Models

Lutfu S. Sua, Figen Balo

Advances in Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/44629

Solar energy keeps increasing its potential to replace conventional sources of energy.                         However, the need for initial investment requires careful planning and efficient use of financial resources. The most vital part of such in-depth analysis is dependable data. Solar radiation values are of great significance to be able to estimate the potential of solar systems. On the other hand, solar radiation measurements are very limited in global scale. Thus, many models have been proposed to satisfy the need for the missing data. However, these models are dependent                                on the specifics of the region to be examined. Climatic conditions play a significant role                                  in model development. There are four climatic regions in Turkey and each of them needs to be studied on its own. In this study, in order to design PV system for maximum efficiency under certain climatic conditions in Turkey, a comparative analysis of solar energy potential for two cities in the continental climatic zone is conducted. Solar radiation values on inclined and horizontal surfaces are calculated through MATLAB software. Based on the calculations, the values of the indicators show that potential for photovoltaic systems in both cities corresponds to expected levels.                       The solar radiation levels are evaluated to be at acceptable efficiency levels to design a photovoltaic system.


Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Properties of Flours from Fresh and Boiled Wild Yam Dioscorea praehensilis Tubers

Soro Songuimondenin, Kouadio T. Martin, Binaté Siaka, Kouassi K. Appolinaire, Konan K. Hubert, Kouadio E. Jean Parfait

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/45146

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of boiling time on functional properties of flour from the wild yam Dioscorea praehensilis tuber. For this purpose, six (6) flours were produced with different boiling times of the wild yam tubers: 5 min (YT5), 10 min (YT10), 20 min (YT20), 30 min (YT30) and 40 minutes (YT40); the raw tuber flour (YT0) was used as reference control. Slower wettability registered for raw flour (116.33s) significantly (p<0.05) change with boiling as wettability of boiled tubers flours ranged from 25.32 s (YT5) to 33.5 s (YT40). The densities paste clarity and Water Absorption capacity significantly (p<0.05) increased with the boiling. But there were significantly (p<0.05) decrease in water solubility index (WSI) (from 19.45 % to 16.45 %), dispersibility (from 82.03 % to 74.2) and foam capacity (from 86.02 to 11.79 %). The foam stability increased from raw to the boiled tuber. Parameter like least gelation concentration (LGC) remained constant (at 6 g/ml) from raw to boiled tubers and increased to 8 g/ml only at the longer boiling time (30 min and 40 min). The highest emulsion capacity was registered at 20 min while the highest), water absorption capacity (WAC) was registered at 10 min. The swelling power and solubility increased significantly from 70° to 95° C with the highest values in swelling power for YT5. The highest solubility value was registered at 70° C for YT5. Turbidity values ranged from 1.6 to 2.8 with higher values for YT0 and lower values for YT40. Four oil types were tested for Oil Absorption Capacity (OAC). Highest OAC values were obtained in boiled flours with unrefined palm oil (all values higher than 180 %) followed by refined palm oil (values ranged 166.5 to 185 %). These results showed that the boiling and the boiling time induced significant changes in functional properties of flour from the wild yam Dioscorea praehensilis tuber.


Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Performance Evaluation of Dual Powered Baking Oven

Adegbola Adeyinka, Olaoye Olusegun, Adeyemo Taiye, Lameed Mojeed, Oke Heritage

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43706

Due to the problem of irregularity of power supply eminent in underdeveloped and developing countries and the growing cost of hydrocarbon, there arises the need to develop alternative energy source to power heating oven. The dual powered baking oven is the joining or mixing together of components that make use of alternative heat sources. The primary purpose of this research work is to develop a dual powered (gas and electricity) baking oven which is efficient, cheap and cost effective both in production and operation. The upper chamber is supply energy through electricity while the lower chamber works by the supply of gas which is located outside the chamber as heat source. In the upper chamber, there exist a heating element which produces and weakened heat within the enclosure. Cooking gas is provided to the burner which is situated in the lower chamber of the oven through a pipe connection to the gas cylinder. Perforation gives room for heat dissipation inside the range of the lower chamber. From the tests carried out, as the temperature rises, the time required to prepare the food reduces. When the performance evaluation of the oven was carried out, it was discovered that it is efficient and quicker. The baking oven is quicker and thus baked more faster when compared with existing one. The oven is suitable for domestic and industrial purposes and have been discovered very useful in bakery industries.


Open Access Review Article

A Review of Green Supply Chain Management on Waste Disposal: A Study of Nigerian Garment Industry

O. S. Bamisaye, A. D. Adeitan

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/45017

The Nigerian garment industry plays an essential role in reviving the economy, luring direct foreign investment and means of livelihood to the masses. However, due to the rapid growth of the industry and less awareness of green supply chain management, there is a major concern in the disposal techniques of wastes generated by garment manufacturers in Nigeria. The disposal techniques used by garment producers in Nigeria is either by burning or simply disposing of it on landfills. It emits acidic gases, dioxins, and dust particles which are harmful to human beings and the environment. The aim of this paper is to determine the drivers, factors, and practices that are essential to the implementation of green supply chain management in Nigerian garment industries. The method is on a broad literature review, which centered on barriers to recycling and waste reduction, environmental performance indicators, drivers in accomplishing green supply chain, and types of waste produced in Nigerian garment industry. The review suggests that Nigerian garment manufacturers need to implement green supply chain management to achieve sustainability and cost-effective production. it was concluded that there is a need to conduct more research on the environmental impact of waste reuse and recycling in the Nigerian garment industry. The comprehensive green supply chain management research might be the key to sustainability developments and overall environmental performance in the Nigerian manufacturing sector as a whole.