Open Access Short Research Article

Growth of Non-bank Trade Finance

Satinder Bhatia

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34104

The rise of non-bank trade finance has been especially noticeable in the last decade.  Many commodity and e-commerce companies are rapidly entering this arena as sovereign                guarantees and collaterals take a backseat making it harder for banks to apply traditional models while lending to businesses. Non-banks which are more nimble occupy space vacated by banks.  Increasingly, though, banks have begun to collaborate with non-banks, particularly fintech companies for rapid processing of transactions. Besides, trade finance field is itself developing its own specialised areas such as commodity finance, power generation and financial services.    Growth in each field depends on the extent of specialised knowledge, developments in capital markets, innovations by technological service providers permitting new collaborations and a dynamic regulatory framework including self-regulation for assessing and disclosing emerging  risks.


Open Access Original Research Article

Amino Acid and Functional Characteristics of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Seeds under Normal Storage Ripening

G. O. Oyeleke, R. O. Adetoro, W. K. Sulaiman, A. A. Adebisi

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33424

The amino acid contents and the functional properties of matured unripe, ripe and overripe pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds were carried out using standard methods as follow up to a previous paper where some aspects of the chemical composition of the seeds at different ripening stages were determined. Twenty amino acids comprising ten essential and non- essential amino acids were detected, out of which total essential amino acids (EAA) in % were 48, 47 and 24 while non-essential amino acids in % were 52, 53 and 76 in unripe, ripe and overripe pawpaw seeds respectively. Functional properties for bulk density (BD), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), foaming capacity (FC), emulsion capacity (EC), gelation capacity (GC) and viscosity were also determined. Favourable functional properties and the amino acids makes the results from this study an important index to the use of the seeds from the various ripening stages a means of supplementing the existing source of nutrient in food formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions about Social Responsible Investing among Academic Staff: Evidence from the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Daniel Agyapong, Matilda Ewusi

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33420

Aims: The study focused on the perceptions about social responsible investing (SRI) among academic staff. The target population for the study were staff of the University of Cape Coast.

Study Design: The study employed the cross-sectional survey research design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place between September 2016 and December, 2016 at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana. The data was collected from Academic Staff of the University.

Research Methodology: Three hundred and two (302) questionnaires were given out for data collection but in all, a total of two hundred and eighty-five (285) responses were received and were used for the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, Structural Equation Modelling were used to analyse the responses gathered. The Smart PLS and SPSS software were employed in the processing of the data collected.

Results: The study revealed that the knowledge about SRI concept was relatively low these respondents. However, it was observed these respondents were not much familiar with the principle of SRI in making investment decisions.

Conclusion: It was evident that social responsible investing ideology is not well diffused even among the learned communities such as the university. This can be attributed to the inadequate research on this subject matter by the research community, especially those from Ghana. It is, therefore, necessary that attention be turned to this critical area of research. For corporate bodies, it is an area where firms can obtain a competitive advantage, by reviewing their policies to incorporate such responsible behaviour.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Rainfall and Temperature on Total Column Ozone over West Africa

E. O. Eresanya, A. Oluleye, M. T. Daramola

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34312

This study aims at analyzing the influence of rainfall and temperature on Total Column Ozone (TCO) over West Africa. It provides adequate information on the spatial variability of total column ozone concentration, temperature distribution across latitudinal zones, monthly distribution and inter-annual variability of total ozone column and inter-relationship between monthly ozone and distribution of precipitation rate over West Africa. The result of this work shows that, there are significant interconnectivities between total ozone column variability with precipitation and temperature. The correlation between Annual coefficient of Relative Variation (ACRV) of Total Column Ozone (TCO) with average annual temperature and average precipitation shows that there is correlation in ACRV of total ozone column trends over West Africa with temperature and precipitation. A strong positive value correlation was observed between the ACRV of ozone and average annual temperature which increases from 25°C to 29°C at the hot arid north of the region and the mean monthly maximum ozone Coincides with the tropical summer rainfall over West Africa between June and September, which showed that there is a significant relationship between rainfall and total ozone column over West Africa. Temperature and ozone tend to increase across the latitude while rainfall decreases across the latitude. These observations suggest significant association between the atmospheric phenomena and total ozone redistribution over West Africa. Ozone distribution is mostly controlled by rainfall producing mechanism. The moist south westerly originating from Atlantic Ocean flows to enhance ozone accumulation as ozone maximum concentration occurs when it takes over the region. On the other hand, north easterly counterpart depletes ozone concentration thereby producing minimum ozone during the dry season.


Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Fish Aggregating Device Fishery in the River Titas of Bangladesh

M. G. Mustafa

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33850

Aims: To examine the status of Fish Aggregating Device (Katha) fishery in the river Titas in Bangladesh and development of an alternative Katha fishery management strategy. 

Study Design: All Fish Aggregating Devices (Kathas) were recorded through a census survey. Fish catch monitoring facilitated through a regular catch survey of Katha/gear/team in operation.

Place and Duration of Study: The study employed data collected from the river Titas in Brahmanbaria district of Bangladesh from 1997 to 2002.

Methodology: A census of all constructed Fish Aggregating Devices (Kathas) in the study sites was undertaken. Catch data, including information on species composition and abundance, were collected from Katha fishers during the harvest season. Simultaneously a robust catch assessment was observed for four days per month. Randomly selected samples of catch by species by gear are recorded for each gear type.

Results: Katha fisheries in this river accounted for 28%, 20%, 34%, 34%, 37% and 25% of annual fish production in 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 respectively. Significant (p<0.001) differences in species assemblages between Katha and survey catch were found in this river. However, species distributions in Katha catch are not significantly different in the years 1997 to 2002 at the 5% level.

Conclusion: Katha fishery in the river system generally has a detrimental impact on fisheries resources as well as reducing fishing opportunities for poor and marginal fishers.