Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Aspect Based Multidimensional Poverty in Rural Haryana

Nitin Tanwar, B. K. Hooda

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 5, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34765

The issue of poverty estimation in India has been drawing attention since independence. The process for measuring poverty in India was initiated in early sixties, when a working group from planning commission provided a quantification of minimum food and non-food requirements of individuals for a healthy living. Theoretical developments on poverty measurement have gradually shifted from the traditional unidimensional approach to the multidimensional concept. [1] Pointed out that the study of poverty should identify and analyze attributes than monetary which directly influence the individual welfare. In the present study, estimation of poverty in rural Haryana has been undertaken on the aspects of drinking water, sanitation and housing facilities. For estimation of the poverty, the secondary data on selected indicators of drinking water, sanitation and housing facilities from 69th round of National sample survey office (NSSO) survey have been utilized. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI) using the dual cut-off method based on the counting approachhas been applied for estimation of the aspect based multidimensional poverty in rural Haryana. It involves counting the different types of deprivation that individuals experience at the same time. These deprivation profiles are analysed to identify who is poor, and then used to construct a MPI. Using the MPI, the districts Mewat, Rohtak, Palwal, Jhajjar and Fatehabad have higher value of MPI and indicating high level of poverty while districts Rewari, Kaithal, Bhiwani, Mahendragarh, Kurukshetra, Faridabad and Ambala were found in better condition. Effective awareness programmes about various schemes provided by government should be conducted so that villagers get to know about various benefits and the ways of approaching for getting benefits given by state/central government.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial and Aflatoxins Analysis of Selected Cereal Flours Processed and Sold in Abakaliki Metropolis

Fidelis Azi, Ngozi U. Oledinma, Helen Amaka Njoku, Veronica N. Nwobasi, Amechi S. Nwankwegu

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 5, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32890

Aflatoxins are very potent mycotoxins produce by molds. Molds are very common pre-harvest and post harvest contaminant of cereals/cereal products. Despite improved handling, processing and storage of cereals, aflatoxins still remain a major problem in the cereal processing industry causing both health hazards and economic losses. Therefore, some researchers have suggested that in order to avoid the toxicity, the levels of aflatoxins and similar toxic compounds in foodstuffs have to be monitored closely, and be kept under control continuously. Otherwise, related health effects like acute and chronic intoxications, and even deaths, will still be an issue. Therefore, in this research the microbial and total aflatoxins analysis of selected cereal flours processed and sold in Abakaliki metropolis was carried out. A total of four cereal samples (maize, millet, sorghum and wheat) were studied. The total aflatoxins were analyzed using highly sensitive competitive Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) reader. The cereal samples were also analyzed for total fungal count using digital colony counting machine (CCM China). The result showed that all the cereal flours (wheat, sorghum, millet and maize) analyzed were heavily contaminated with fungal cells. The flours also contain unacceptable levels of aflatoxins. The total aflatoxins were above the minimum acceptable limits (10 ppm) according to National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). The millet and sorghum have the highest fungal and total aflatoxins concentrations while the wheat flour has the lowest fungal and total aflatoxins concentrations. There were significant difference (p<0.05) among the total aflatoxins level of the different cereal flours. The research also revealed that flours have high moisture content. It is therefore recommended that a more improved process line be put in place to ensure that all cereal flours sold in Abakaliki are produced using Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).


Open Access Original Research Article

Facile Preparation of a Nanostructured Silver Oxide from a Mixed Ligand Coordination Polymer: Characterization and Biological Activity

Maged S. Al-Fakeh

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 5, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34338

In this research, the synthesis of a silver coordination polymer derived from1,2-bis (4-pyridyl)-ethane (BPA) and benzimidazole (BIMZ) is reported. It was synthesized, characterized and used as a precursor for silver oxide nanoparticles by calcination. The as-obtained complex products was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-visible spectra fluorescence technique, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that the size of the silver oxide nanoparticles obtained is 29 nm. The oxide exhibits strong antimicrobial actions on some Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Rewarding the Factory Workers: How to Select the Right Measures for an Effective Pay-for-Performance System

Roberto Panizzolo, Stefano Biazzo, Alberto Maria de Crescenzo

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 5, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34518

Aims: A Performance related pay (PRP) plan rewards employees with a financial payment, either consolidated or non consolidated, following an assessment of their performance and, typically, the achievement of objectives. Many different types of PRP schemes have been developed over the years. Regardless of the scheme chosen, a particularly critical factor in the design of a performance-related pay (PRP) plan concerns the choice of parameters or indicators on which variable pay should be determined. The research goal of this work is to develop an analytical model that can help companies to identify the optimal set of these parameters.

Methodology: The model proposed in the paper has been developed through an empirical research methodology involving a large sample of companies. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire distributed to companies which have implementing for at least ten years a performance-related pay (PRP) scheme for shop-floor workers.

Results: Descriptive and interpretative analysis of empirical results have identified a set of relationships between some company characteristics and the use of specific indicators for measuring the bonus to be given to the shop floor workers. The proposed model correlates three different typologies of companies (i.e. make to stock, make to order and engineering to order) with different types of indicators (i.e. profitability, productivity, efficiency and quality) which have to be used for bonus calculation. After having recognized to which category a firm belongs, it can easily identify the types of indicators to be used.

Originality: The proposed model can actually help companies to identify the optimal set of parameters on which basing the PRP plan. A set of strong relationships have been recognized between some company characteristics and different types of indicators that should be employed for determining the variable bonus for shop-floor workers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Climate Change through Temperature Increase on Heavy Metals Concentrations in Water and Sediment of Ekpan Creek, Delta State, Nigeria

Oluowo Elohor Freeman, Olomukoro John Ovie, Isibor Patrick Omoregie

Advances in Research, Volume 10, Issue 5, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34754

Climate change affect the physiochemical characteristics of water bodies directly through temperature increase with resultant effect in reducing heavy metals concentrations in surface water temporarily, and indirectly changing the physical and chemical processes related to temperature in the water columns. This scenario concomitantly increase the rate of biochemical processes with a significant decrease in oxygen concentration, as well as the composition and distribution of metals in water and sediment. The concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment of Ekpan Creek was investigated from December 2009 to May 2010 at monthly interval. Five sampling stations was designated along the water stretch for water and sediment collection. The Varian Techron Spectr AA – 10 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (S/N.902 1318) with a printer attached was used for the determination of phosphate, sulphate, nitrate, copper, iron, chromium, manganese, lead, zinc and cadmium.

At the stations, air temperature ranged from 27.9°C to 33.4°C, water temperature from 28°C to 34°C; TDS, 463 to 503 mg/L; DO, 4.12 to 7.44 mg/L; hardness, 85.47 to 125 mg/L; phosphate, in water (0.03 to 0.18 mg/L) sediment, 17.85 to 2484 mg/L); Nitrate in water 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L, sediment 1.47 to 9.51 mg/L; Sulphate in water 19.26 to 50.66 mg/L, sediment 1.47 to 9.51 mg/L; iron in water 0.65 to 0.43 mg/L, sediment 380.37 to 239.17 mg/L; Zinc in water 0.32 to 0.13 mg/L, sediment 8.11 to 3.14 mg/L; Copper in water 0.0038 to 0.0014 mg/L, sediment 1.33 to 0.05 mg/L; lead in water 0.0042 to 0.001 mg/L; Sediment 0.16 to 0.02 mg/L; Cadmium in water 0.028 to 0.001 mg/L, 0.504 to 0.019 mg/L; Chromium in water 0.0038 to 0.0012 mg/L, sediment 0.801 to 0.001 mg/L; Manganese 2.44 to 0.86 mg/L. The present study recommend enforcement of strict regulation of anthropogenic input of these metals to the river and more in-depth study of the impacts of climate change on metals concentrations in aquatic systems.