Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Visual Basic Program to Design Front Mounted Three-Point Linkage for Higher Power Tractors

Naseeb Singh, K. P. Pandey

Advances in Research, Volume 11, Issue 2, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/35767

In higher power tractors, to fully utilize the available power and for timeliness of tillage operations, front mounted three-point linkage is another option. With this view, a user friendly computer program is developed in Visual Basic environment to design of front mounted three-point linkage. The input parameters of the developed program are mainly speed of operation, type of implement, mast height, PTO power, angle of links, hydraulic pressure, yield strength of materials etc. The program is capable to compute draft, forces on linkage, links dimensions, link points, design of hydraulic cylinder, minimum hydraulic lift capacity etc. ASAE draft equation is used to calculate draft and horizontal and vertical forces on links are calculated to determine safety against bending of links. A front three-point linkage is fabricated as per dimensions provided by developed program. Developed visual basic program is simple, cheap and practically useful to design front mounted linkage.


Open Access Original Research Article

Normal Electrochemical Deposition of NiFe Films

Tikhonov Robert Dmitrievich

Advances in Research, Volume 11, Issue 2, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/35714

The electrodeposition of Fe-Ni alloys was performed galvanostatically in chloride solutions of pH 1.5–2.5 at 70°C, and the deposition behavior was investigated. The presence of hydroxide iron in the electrolyte was the main cause of anomalous codeposition. Hydroxide iron precipitates were eliminated by using boric acid and filtration. The formation of iron ions, Fe3+, was inhibited by hydrochloric acid. The chloride electrolyte is stability and elimination of anomalies deposition. Changing the current process does not lead to a noticeable change in the content of iron and nickel in the film. The current value is selected when the contents of iron and nickel change due to additives in the electrolyte leads to modify the content of the film. Congruent deposition of FeNi occurs with relevant electrolyte compositions and films.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening and Characterization of Dipteran Specific cry Genes from Native Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates of Western Ghats, India

M. Sivaji, D. Girija

Advances in Research, Volume 11, Issue 2, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32920

Many studies have been done to control lepidopteran by the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein (Bt protein). But in the current study, we concentrated more on identification and characterization of cry genes specific to dipteran insects from twenty native Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Genomic DNA of the twenty native isolates were subjected to PCR using specific primers for cry2, cry4, cry10, cry11, cry16, cry17, cry19 and cry21 genes to find out the cry genes content. Profiling of cry genes showed that cry4 was most predominant by 69 per cent in eleven isolates (Bt-23, Bt-133, Bt-242, Bt-245, Bt-250, Bt-326, Bt-411, Bt-420, Bt-447 and reference strain 4Q1). This was followed by cry11, which was present in 13 per cent and cry10 in 12 per cent. Combinations of cry4 and cry11 genes were present in Bt-23 and Bt-242 while cry21 was present only in isolate Bt-245. None of the isolates carried cry2, cry16, cry17 and cry19 genes. Partial cry4 gene was cloned around 800 bp from Bt-23 and sequenced from Bt-133, Bt-190 and Bt-242 showing homology with cry4 and cry4A genes in the NCBI database.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fuzzy Relational Equations of k - regular Intuitionistic Fuzzy and Block Fuzzy Matrices

P. Jenita, E. Karuppusamy

Advances in Research, Volume 11, Issue 2, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/35535

In this paper, the solution of fuzzy relational equations are determined in the case of k - regular intuitionistic fuzzy matrices. Also we introduce the concept of k - regularity for block intuitionistic fuzzy matrices and the consistency of intuitionistic fuzzy relational equations are discussed.


Open Access Review Article

Uptake of Knowledge and Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change in Crop Production Systems in Uganda: A Review

John Stephen Tenywa, Margaret Nabasirye, Revocatus Twinomuhangi, David. Mfitumukiza

Advances in Research, Volume 11, Issue 2, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34892

Knowledge and technology uptake in the context of climate change adaptation is critical in ensuring that communities vulnerable to climate risks, respond effectively with appropriate actions, and particularly to its extreme events that are increasingly bedeviling agricultural natural resources and livelihoods, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Uptake as a subject is either loosely treated or lightly understood by actors in the African climate change research and development continuum. The objective of this article was to appraise the status of uptake of innovations (knowledge and technologies) of climate change adaptations in crop-based systems in Uganda, and propose viable interventions for enhancing the uptake process to obviate the escalating effects of climate change and its associated variability. The study was conducted during December 2016. It was dominantly a desk review, primarily based on existing online information sources and other national institutional repositories. The other information source was from a two-days stakeholder workshop involving key actors within the climate change research and development value chain in Uganda. They validated the synthesised information and supplemented with more recent events and hitherto undocumented scenarios. The study revealed that uptake of climate change adaptation actions was measurably low in the country; hence, communities were far from ready to face the recurrently changing and increasingly aggressive climate change events. Among the major contributors to slow uptake were lack of a coherent climate change activity coordination entity in the country, to organise actors into a functional service delivery system with minimum duplication; ensuring quality actions and following a unidirectional long term goal. The other hindrances included scattered knowledge and technologies, sub-optimal communication and extension services, technology products misconception, low adaptation capacity, unfavourable policies and policy environments, ineffectiveness traditional public and civil society extension agencies. Interventions are proposed to obviate these bottlenecks, using largely internal mechanisms.