Open Access Original Research Article

On Pairwise Singular Compactification

Anjali Srivastva, Rina Pankaj Verma

Advances in Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/26837

By introducing the notion of a pairwise singular compactification for a pairwise hausdorff, pairwise locally compact bitopological space it is proved that a aX is a pairwise singular compactification for X iff aX-X is a pairwise retract of aX.


Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Fabrication of a Dual Powered Baking Oven

J. L. Chukwuneke, I. C. Nwuzor, E. O. Anisiji, I. E. Digitemie

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43219

This work develops a mini dual powered oven which is mainly made up of the electric coil, the lagging material, temperature control and the gas burner. It has an internal volume of 0.140m3, with a double tray for baking and drying of food items and outside surface area of 0.142 m2. The oven was constructed in such a way that the electric coil heater and the gas burner are in one chamber. Using the electrical coil heater and a temperature regulator, the maximum temperature of 220˚C was recorded. The oven was insulated with a material (slag wool) that has a thermal conductivity of 0.042 w/moC. The oven can bake maximum of 12 loaves of bread (area of 0.022 m2per loaf) and it was constructed with locally available materials.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Teaching Modules in Knowledge Gain of Students

Anju Kapri, Uma S. Hiremath, Pankaj Kumar Chaunsali

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43866

Aim: To know the knowledge level of students about nutrition and health and gain in knowledge after introducing teaching modules to the selected groups.

Study Design: Random sampling design method was used in this study

Place and Duration of Study: A total of 300 rural junior college students from both Dharwad and Pithoragarh taluks (150 from each taluk) were selected for the study. The study was carried out between November 2016 and May 2017.

Methodology: The study was carried out with the sample size of 300 rural junior college students. In this study three groups were taken, one control group in which lecture + discussion method were used to collect the data. Other two groups were experiment groups i.e., treated group-1 in which lecture + PPT+ discussion and treated group-2 where lecture + video clipping+ discussion were used to gather the information from the respondents.

Results: The data revealed that treated group-2 gained more effectively, than other two groups showing increase in the knowledge of the students regarding nutrients and health in both Dharwad (Karnataka state) and Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand state) taluks. Results have indicated that, in Dharwad taluk, amongst all the variables, study habits and mother’s education showed highly significant relationship whereas, in Pithoragarh taluk, size of the family was observed as having significant relationship with the knowledge of the students about nutrition and health.

Conclusion: Knowledge of facts alone does not constitute understanding. It is only the first step. Understanding is attained only when one is able to attach meaning to facts, see the relationship of facts to each other and to the whole of a proposition and the relationship of the total body of facts to the problem under consideration. Hence, the development of nutrition education programs for youth is essential for increasing their ability to understand proper food practices, encouraging these individuals to become active in a social transformation process by spreading these healthy food habits and contributing to the establishment of a society with better future perspectives.


Open Access Original Research Article

Resolution of Conflict of Laws in International Contract Field

Desiree Roffee Ciss

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43930

As we know, it would be difficult to live in community, to maintain human relations, in other words, to live in a society without talking about the differences that could arise. It is also in the perspective of managing this kind of situations, these relationships between individuals that is not the right. These disputes may exist either between individuals living in the same territory or between individuals of different nationalities it is also the reason why we speak of a conflict of laws object to our development.

Thus, conflicts of law are understood to mean that branch of private international law which, in the event of a dispute, makes it possible to determine the applicable law for deciding the latter. It must be noted that in the event of a dispute it is necessary at least to have an element of foreign nationality. As we know, there are several types of conflict of laws but the subject of our subject is conflict of laws in contract. We will then ask ourselves the question of how to regulate conflicts of laws?

To try to answer this question in order to eradicate or avoid the conflicts of laws we will have to evoke throughout our development in a successive way: definition of the notion of international contract, of the notion of conflict of laws, so conflict of law, conflict of laws rules, but also discuss how to resolve conflict of laws, how to prevent or avoid conflict of laws, and present conflict resolution methods while using French law as an example.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computing Internal Member Forces in a Bridge Truss Using Classical Iterative Numerical Methods with Maple® & MATLAB®

Aliyu Bhar Kisabo, Bello Abdulazeez Opeyemi, Capt. Olayemi Balogun

Advances in Research, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43876

In this study, computation and analysis of internal member forces acting on a bridge truss were carried out. First, the forces were resolved at each joint and a system of equations was built to describe the truss as a Linear System of Algebraic Equations (LSAEs). The LSAEs developed here is of the order 8 x 8 and sparse. Aside from the truss system being a sparse matrix, it is neither positive definite nor a tridiagonal matrix. Hence, a weakly diagonally dominant matrix characterised by ρ (A) > 1. Secondly, 3 iterative numerical methods were applied to obtain a solution to the LSAEs. Third, with Maple®, Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods were used with relative ease to the LSAEs, and its solution converged after 30 and 18 iterations respectively. When Successive Over-relaxation (SOR) method was applied with ω = 1.25, a solution to the LSAEs failed to converge. In a novel approach, the error evolution was simulated against iteration number for ω = 0.1 - 0.99 in Maple®. After analysing such results, ω = 0.93 was selected as the optimal value for the Relaxation Technique and solution to the LSAEs converged after ten iterations. MATLAB® codes were then written for the three iterative numerical methods to validate the results obtained in Maple®. The method proposed here proved to be very effective.