Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Yarns from Plant-Waste Material China-Rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)

Lalita Rani, Kanwaljit Brar

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41399

The present study was undertaken to address the issues of plant-waste utilization to the benefit of mankind. The ultimate aim of plant-waste management is to make its best utilization through useful product development. The study focused on the chemical extraction of china-rose                           (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) fibres and studying the properties of its pure and blended yarns. China-rose bark was treated in 2.5% alkali solution (1:20 MLR) at a high temperature (100–120°C) for 2.5 hours. Softening of fibres was done with silicone emulsion (0.5% by weight of fibres) at room temperature. Higher denier values (69.12) and bundle strength (22.50 g/tex) were observed for china-rose fibres. Length of china-rose fibres (54.40 mm) was longer than cotton fibres with a moisture content 12.17%. The extracted china-rose fibres were hand spun in two types of yarns, i.e., 100% china-rose (100%) and blending with cotton at a ratio of 50H: 50C. Higher tenacity (2.49 gf/tex) and lower breaking force (512.2 g) of cotton blended yarn were found in comparison to 100% china-rose yarn. Besides, higher yarn count 2.89s was observed in case of 50H: 50C blended yarn. It can be concluded from the study that the blending of cotton with pure china-rose fibres increased the yarn’s strength and elongation at break, making the yarn less stiff.  Study of the physical and mechanical properties of yarn showed that it can be used for making heavy weight fabrics for home textiles and apparel.

Open Access Original Research Article

GGE Biplot Analysis of Multi-environment Yield Trials for Wheat in Northern India

Bhushan Kumar, Ekta Hooda, B. K. Hooda

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43488

A GGE Biplot provides an efficient graphical procedure for identification of favourable genotypes and mega-environment analysis. It displays the Genotype main effect (G) and genotype-by-environment (GE) interaction in two dimensions. It also possesses an extra property in the evaluation of the test environment by discriminating power versus representativeness view. Wheat breeders aim to develop superior genotypes characterised by high grain yield and other desirable quality traits. Presence of G × E interaction makes it difficult to identify the high yielding and most stable genotypes. Mega-environment analysis and genotype evaluation were conducted for 23 genotypes of wheat in six environments/states of Northern India during 2013-14. Delhi environment was observed as the most discriminating while Uttar Pradesh was reported as the least discriminating. The genotype WH1105 was observed to be the most favourable followed by PBW698 for Northern Zone of India.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Finger Size and Variety on Mechanical Properties of Intact Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Finger under Quasi-static Loading

O. Nyorere, H. Uguru

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43938

The mechanical properties of two varieties of unripe plantain fruits (Fingers), namely, Dwarf                   hybrid and local, were evaluated in this study. Six mechanical parameters (bio-yield force,                        bio-yield energy, maximum compressive force, rupture force, rupture energy and                                 relative deformation at rupture) of the plantain fingers were evaluated at two different finger                             sizes (small and large), under a compressive loading speed of 20 mm/min, using the                         Universal Testing Machine. The results obtained statistically showed that plantain                               variety significantly (P < 0.05) affected only the rupture energy and the relative deformation                         at rupture; whereas, plantain cultivar had no significantly influence on the remaining four parameters. In respite to the finger size, the all the six mechanical parameters studied increased from the small size to the large size. The results also show that for both varieties, the local plantain variety had higher values than in the improved variety. For the local variety, the bio-yield force and bio-yield energy increased by 13.8%, and 37.5%; 16% and 29.18% for the improved variety. Similarly, all the rupture parameters (rupture force, rupture energy, relative deformation at rupture) values increased by 11.9%, 11.14%, and 15.49% for the local variety; and 13.94%, 11.81% and 12.06% for the improved variety.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Zinc Application on Morphological and Biophysical Parameters of Rice Genotypes in Pot Experiment

Venkatesh Dore, R. V. Koti, N. G. Hanamaratti

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43412

Experiment was conducted during Kharif -2015 at ARS, Mugad, UAS, Dharwad (Karnataka), to study Impact of application of ZnSO4 on Morphological, Biophysical traits and seed zinc content  of rice genotypes raised in pots. Factorial randomized block design consist of 20 genotypes with combination of two treatments viz., T1: Control (no zinc); T2: Soil application of ZnSO4 (20 kg ha-1 with three replications. Application of zinc significantly increased the  plant height (91.5), leaf area (1.812 cm-2 plant-1), number of tillers (20.2 plant-1), total dry weight (52.1 g plant-1), photosynthetic rate (13.1 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), stomatal conductance (0.27 (µmol m2 s-1), transpiration rate (3.76 mmol H2O m-2 s-1) and seed zinc content (24.4 ppm). Similarly, genotypes also differed                 significantly. Whereas; interaction did not differed significantly with all these parameters.                        From the current study, it can be concluded that amending the soil with Zn fertilizer @ 20 kg ha-1 resulted in enhancement of morphological traits and biophysical parameters and seed zinc content of rice.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Wastewater from Artisanal Mining on the Pollution of Contaminated Sites: A Case Study of Betare-Oya in East Cameroon

André Talla, Charles Moandjim-Me-Bock

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43351

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the wastewater from artisanal mining on the pollution contaminated sites in the Betare-Oya locality in East Cameroon. Water samples were collected from the Mbal stream exposed to artisanal mining on the upstream and downstream, and analysed for contamination loads in the laboratory. Water samples were taken on four different positions of the stream course and analysed in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis quantified the loads of pollutants including the heavy metals in the water samples and their physicochemical and bacteriological parameters. Results show that the levels of the water stream contamination exceeds the upper limits of the contaminations that WHO (World Health Organisation) standards allows. The suspended solid content, colour, turbidity and total coliforms were 573 mg/l, 3683 Pt-Co/l (Platinum Cobalt Colour per 1 l of sample), 468 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit) and 171×103 CFU/100 ml (Colony Forming Unit per 100 ml of sample) respectively. The analysis of heavy metals contamination showed its levels are lower than the detection limits of the plasma emission spectrometry technique. The good correlations of the major chemical elements in the water samples revealed by the study, indicates that they originate from the alteration of rocks.