Open Access Method Article

The Hierarchical Structuring of Species Abundances within Communities: Disentangling the Intensity of the Underlying Structuring Process behind the Apparent Unevenness Pattern

Jean Béguinot

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43421

Besides species richness, the hierarchical structuration of species abundances is the second major characteristic that numerically specifies a community of species. However, while the meaning of species richness is simple and straightforward, the hierarchical structuration of abundances is a less simple concept, where the pattern – i.e. the straightforwardly observed level of unevenness of species abundance distribution – does not reliably mirror the genuine intensity of the structuring process itself. This is because the level of unevenness is also mathematically dependent upon species richness. Accordingly, when specifying numerically a community of species, I advocate not to be satisfied, as usual, by considering only the total species richness and the degree of unevenness (whatever the expression chosen to quantify unevenness). A third parameter should be further considered: the genuine intensity of the structuring process itself, defined freed from the purely mathematical influence of species richness and, thereby, accurately reflecting the functional contribution to the hierarchical structuration of species abundances. The level of unevenness is thus only granted a simply descriptive goal, while the intensity of the structuring process relevantly speaks for the biological background behind the apparent hierarchical structuration of species abundances in communities. An additional requirement to warrant the reliable evaluations of these three parameters is, of course, to work with (sub-) exhaustive samplings of the studied                 communities or, when not possible in practice, to consider the least-biased numerical extrapolations of partial samplings (when only the latter are available). The benefits of this renewed methodological way to quantify the internal organization of species communities, as well as the potential                   pitfalls to which one may be exposed by considering only species richness and (apparent) abundance unevenness, are argued from a theoretical point of view and then highlighted concretely in a series of examples.


Open Access Original Research Article

Value Relevance of Accounting Information in Nigerian Listed Financial Companies

Adebimpe O. Umoren, Paul W. Akpan, Ebi V. Ekeria

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42794

This paper investigates the value relevance of accounting information (book value and earnings) on the market price of shares before and after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria. It also examines whether the relevance of accounting information in Nigerian financial companies has decreased or increased over time. It used a judgemental sample of 10 quoted Nigerian Banks for 10 years (2007 – 2016) and the ordinary least square (OLS) regression. The result of the data analysis showed insignificant relationship between book value per share (BVS) and market price per share (MPS) as well as insignificant relationship between earnings per share (EPS) and market price per share (MPS) before (P=0.57 and 0.59 respectively) and after (P=0.76 and 0.54 respectively) the adoption of IFRS in Nigeria. A comparison of the results for the periods before and after adoption, indicates that the book value per share and earnings per share of banks are not more sensitive to share prices under IFRS than under the previous Nigerian SAS. It is recommended that concerted effort is required from the regulatory authorities to ensure full compliance with the IFRS.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Efficacy of Banana Peel Activated Carbon in the Removal of Cyanide and Selected Metals from Cassava Processing Wastewater

R. A. Olaoye, O. D. Afolayan, O. I. Mustapha, H. G. Adeleke

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/43070

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of banana peel activated carbon as an adsorbent in the removal of cyanide and selected metals from fresh cassava wastewater collected from the discharge pit.  Fresh banana peels were dried, adequately prepared and treated with 0.1 M HCl. Batch experiments were conducted by varying the adsorbent dose from 5 – 20 g and contact time between 10 – 360 minutes to determine the optimum percentage removal of cyanide - CN and selected metals (lead - Pb, chromium - Cr and cadmium - Cd) from the wastewater. Adsorption percentage was found to be proportional to contact time and dosage. Maximum removal percentage of the cyanide and metals at pH 7.2 was 96.45%, 15 g adsorbent in 300 minutes for CN, 98%, 20 g adsorbent in 240 minutes for Pb, 98%, 20 g adsorbent in 180 minutes for Cd while with 5 g adsorbent, initial traces of Cr in the wastewater was no longer detected. The effectiveness of the activated banana peel carbon increases with dosage at different contact time for cyanide and the selected metal removal.  Thus, at 20 g adsorbent dose and contact time of 300 minutes cyanide and metal ions investigated could not be detected, indicating complete removal. Results indicated the best fitted model as the coefficient of determination (R2) obtained for the adsorption capacity was 0.93, 0.98, 0.84 and 0.93 for CN, Pb, Cr and Cd respectively. Banana Peel Activated Carbon can efficiently treat cassava wastewater containing multi-ions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices on Maize (Zea mays L.) Based Intercropping System under Terai Region of West Bengal

Binoy Chhetri, A. C. Sinha

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41623

Aims: To increase the area of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Walp. intercropping system and also to create the awareness about the integrated nutrient management practices in intercropping system of  farmers of this region.

Study Design: Split –plot design with three replications.

 Place and Duration of Study: Instructional Farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar during pre kharif season of 2014-2015.

Methodology: Four levels of cropping system C1- sole maize, C2-sole cowpea, C3-maize + cowpea (2:2) and C4- maize + cowpea  (2:4) were assigned to main plots and four levels of integrated nutrient management N1: 100% RDF (recommended dose of fertilizers) 80:40:40 kg ha-1 of N: P2O5: K2O, N2:100% RDF + phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) + Azotobacter, N3:75% RDF + PSB+ Azotobacter + vermicompost (VC) @ 5.0 t ha-1 and N4: 50%  RDF + PSB + Azotobacter + 50% vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 for sub plot.

Results:  Among the cropping systems, yield attributes, yield and harvest index was recorded highest under sole crop of maize but when maize grown as intercrop 2:2 row ratio combinations produced highest yield attributes, yield and harvest index as compare to 2:4 row ratio combination. In case of integrated nutrient management, treatment supplied with 75% RDF + PSB + Azotobacter + vermicompost (VC) @ 5.0 t ha-1 (N3) produced highest yield attributes, yield and harvest index was recorded under 100% RDF + PSB + Azotobacter (N2). However, the productivity of system in terms of LER, relative crowding co-efficient (RCC), competition ratio (CR) and aggressivity was found to be higher with 2:2 row ratio combination followed by 2:4 row ratio combination. Among the integrated nutrient management, the productivity of system in terms of LER, relative crowding co-efficient (RCC), competition ratio (CR) and aggressivity found to be higher  under 75% RDF + PSB + Azotobacter + vermicompost (VC) @ 5.0 t ha-1 (N3).

Conclusion: It may be  concluded that integrated nutrient management practices increases the yield attributes, yield, harvest index and competition function of maize and cowpea intercropping system and supplied with 75% RDF + PSB + Azotobacter + vermicompost (VC) @ 5.0 t ha-1 (N3) overall gain on sustainable basis.


Open Access Review Article

Molecular Markers Based Plant Breeding

Samriti Sharma, Ankita Sharma

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42922

Marker assisted plant breeding achieved various plant breeding objectives in a cost effective and time consuming manner through molecular marker techniques or statistical and bioinformatics tools. Molecular markers indicate the differences in the nucleotide sequence of different organs or species. Apart from the application of molecular markers in linkage map construction, they are suitable for assessing genetic variations within cultivars and germplasm, in genome selection and fingerprinting studies. The most engaging fact of molecular markers is in Marker assisted selection (MAS). In comparison with traditional breeding, molecular markers have the efficiency to increase the effectiveness of breeding programmes. In this study, the applications of molecular markers in plant breeding studies are described.