Open Access Original Research Article

Direct and Residual Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer with AM Fungi in Maize- green Gram Cropping Sequence on Nutrients Content and Uptake

Asmatullah Durani, Sonal Tripathi, Aminullah Yousafzai, Hashmatulla Durrani, S. M. Bambhaneeya

Advances in Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42514

The field experiment was conducted at the College Farm, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari in the year 2015-16 and 2016-17 to study the direct and residual effect of phosphorus fertilizer with AM fungi in maize-green gram cropping sequence on nutrients content and uptake during 2015-16 and 2016-17. Application of phosphorus fertilizer SSP and RP (composted) alone or combined with AM fungi significantly increases the NPK content in maize grain and in straw during both years of the study and in the pooled analysis. The treatment 75% P as RP+AM (290.83, 251.36 and 266.19%) increased total nitrogen uptake and 333.11, 345.44 and 340.35% total phosphorus uptake by maize (grain + straw) over control T2 during both the years as well as in pooled analysis, respectively. The total potassium uptake by maize (grain + straw) in treatment 75% P as RP+AM increased 231.1 and 124.3% over control T2 during the first year of the study and in pooled analysis, respectively and in the treatment 75% P as SSP+AM increased (92.67%) of total potassium uptake by maize (grain + straw) over control T2 during the year 2016-17. Application of treatment 75% P as RP+AM applied to preceding rabi maize increased 425.14%, 320.03 and 358.20% of total nitrogen uptake 561.54, 377.78 and 450.24% of total phosphorus uptake and 290.21, 147.00 and 191.62% total potassium uptake by green gram (grain + stover) during 2015-16, 2016-17 and in pooled analysis respectively over control T2.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Milking Management Practices Followed by Dairy Farmers of R. S. Pura Block in Jammu District

Rayees Ahmed Bafanda, Rakesh Nanda, S. A. khandi, Sheikh Umair Minhaj, Farzana Choudhary, Lucky Thapa

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/40011

The present study was conducted in R. S. Pura block of Jammu district to ascertain the milking management practices followed by dairy farmers. R. S. Pura block was purposively selected for the study. List of villages with maximum populations of milch animals was identified from the selected block. Out of the list of identified villages, two villages were randomly selected for the study. From each selected villages 20 dairy farmers were selected randomly, making a sample size of 40 farmers. The results of the study revealed that all 100 percent of dairy farmers practised hand method of milking and none of the dairy farmers practised machine milking. Majority 55 per cent and 70 percent of respondents' practised full hand milking and wet hand milking habits respectively. Majority of respondents practised suckling of a calf to induce milk letdown. None of the respondents practised concentrate feeding along with massage of udder, and use of oxytocin injection for milk ejection in case of death of calf milk let down practices. Around 82.50% of farmers milking the animals at the same place of tethering in the byre. Most (67.50%) of the respondents milking the animal at dirty milking environment.  All respondents (100%) followed two times milking, and a majority (67.5%) of them completed milking in 5-7 minutes. Majority of respondents did not practice straining of milk. The majority (77.5%) of respondents dried the animal by complete cessation of milking followed by intermittent milking. None of the respondents followed teat dipping after milking.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Functional Properties of Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Flours Fortified with Sesame (Sesamum indicum) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera) as a Weaning Food

William Kwithony Disseka, Meuwiah Betty Faulet, Fankroma Martial Thierry Koné, Makambou Jacques Gnanwa, Lucien Patrice Kouamé

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42811

Aims: This study aimed to produce local foods made from millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour weaning food enriched with sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed flour and Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf powder to prevent various forms of malnutrition.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology (UFR-STA), University Nangui Abrogoua, between November 2016 and October 2017.

Methodology: Seven weaning food blends were formulated using fermented millet, germinated millet, sesame and Moringa in the following proportions: 90-10-0-0 (Mi100), 60-10-0-30 (MiMo), 60-10-30-0 (MiS), 60-10-25-5 (MiSMo5), 60-10-20-10 (MiSMo10), 60-10-15-15 (MiSMo15) and 60-10-10-20 (MiSMo20). Standardized methods were adopted for proximate, phytochemical, antioxidant activity and functional properties evaluation of these formulated diets.

Results: A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed between all biochemical properties measured except for the oxalate content of samples. The moisture, ash, protein, fiber, carbohydrate, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid and tannin contents increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing proportions of Moringa and decreasing sesame in different formulated diets, whereas energy value, fat and phytate contents were found to decrease. The nutritional composition of most formulated foods tested is within the recommended standard for weaning foods. The best antioxidant activity was obtained with the formulated diet fortified with 15% sesame and 15% Moringa. Regarding the functional properties, water and oil absorption capacities, foam capacity and dispersibility increased significantly (P<0.05) with Moringa incorporation, while bulk density decreased.

Conclusion: The incorporation of sesame and Moringa as food supplements provides products with improved nutritional and functional properties, a good source of phytochemicals and a good antioxidant activity, useful for infants.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic Factors as Predictors of Environmental Attitudes and Ecological Behaviour of Host Communities of Okomu National Park and Yankari Game Reserve, Nigeria

P. N. Asongo-Ver, S. A. Onadeko, A. O. Jayeola, O. A. Lawal-Adebowale

Advances in Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41687

This study was conducted to examine the effects of six (6) demographic factors on environmental attitude and ecological behaviour of the host communities of two (2) protected areas (PAs). This study examines age, gender, marital status, level of education, income and religion to evaluate which factors best predict as well as the sub-factors that influence pro-environmental attitude and behaviour. Data collection was through questionnaire administration to the six (6) communities at Okomu National Park and five (5) communities at Yankari Game Reserve. A total of 399 residents were surveyed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviation. Yankari residents had 51.4% pro-environmental attitude while Okomu resident (39.1%) were anti-environmental. There was more pro-ecological behaviour from Yankari (64.1%) residents than Okomu (60.6%) residents. Inferential statistics involving categorical regression showed that demographic variables significantly predicts pro-environmental attitude accounting for 14% of the variance in environmental attitude and only 4% of the variance in behaviour. Furthermore, five (5) variables (age, gender, marital status, level of education and religion) were predictors of environmental attitudes while three (3) independent variables significantly predicted the ecological behaviour of the residents. It is recommended that understanding the variables that influence the local residents’ environmental attitude and behaviour and integrating into environmental education, development initiatives and conservation policies is very important in achieving a successful management plan and functioning of protected areas.

 

Open Access Review Article

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS) in Cauliflower Breeding: A Review

Bhallan Singh Sekhon, Yudhvir Singh, Surbhi Sharma, Simran Sharma, Arti Verma, Vishalakshi ., Harmanjeet Singh

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/42884

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.), a member of family Brassicaceae, is one of the principal vegetable crops cultivated throughout the world. To elevate the productivity and enhance the quality, hybrid breeding of cauliflower is the most reliable option. Hybrid cauliflower seed may be produced without costly, labour intensive emasculation pollination systems and climate affected self-incompatibility systems, by the utilization of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). CMS has gained popularity among public as well as private sector as a most trustworthy breeding opportunity. Interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) genes resulted in the production of non-functional pollen which helped to achieve 100% purity in hybrids. CMS emerged as the more adequate and valuable system for cauliflower hybrid breeding, as fertility restoration is not desired, crop being harvested as a vegetative produce (curd stage). Biotechnological tools nowadays have been explored to improve the available CMS germplasm. In this review, we provide insights into the history, effects of cytoplasm on growth and flower characteristics, utilization of biotechnological tools along with the advantages, practical implications and future prospects of CMS for cauliflower hybrid breeding.