Open Access Minireview Article

Potential Benefits of Applying “Omics” Technology in Cleaning up Incessant Crude Oil Spillages in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

U. U. Udofia, U. O. Edet, S. P. Antai

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41489

There have been reported cases of incessant crude oil spills leading to severe instances of hydrocarbon pollution in many parts of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 2011 reported widespread hydrocarbon contamination in Ogoniland severely impacting many components of the environment. Some clean up and remediation methods including bioremediation, thermal treatment, and soil vapour extraction amongst others have been suggested as panacea to the restoration of the severely polluted environments in the region. Amongst these methods, bioremediation stands out. Interestingly omics based techniques have been shown to be amendable to bioremediation with a number of potential benefits. This review paper examines the potential benefits of the omics based technologies in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Robust Estimators for Estimation of Population Variance Using Linear Combination of Downton’s Method and Deciles as Auxiliary Information

M. A. Bhat, T. A. Raja, S. Maqbool, N. A. Sofi, Ab. Rauf, S. H. Baba, Immad. A. Shah

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41956

We have suggested improved and robust estimators for the estimation of finite population variance using non-conventional population parameters as auxiliary variables to enhance the efficiency of proposed estimators. A comparison between suggested estimators and existing estimators has been made through a numerical demonstration. The expression for bias and mean square error has been derived up to the first order of approximation. The improvement of proposed estimators over existing estimators shown is clearly based on the lesser mean square error of proposed estimators.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Essential Oil from Citrus reticulata Fruit Peels

Lovina Goyal, Sonia Kaushal

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41981

Aims: To determine the chemical composition and antioxidising potential of Citrus reticulata fruit peel essential oil.

Study Design: Isolation of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel and determination of its chemical composition through GC MS studies. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of the essential oil was also determined. The essential oil was also analysed for its antioxidant potential.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) India. Between October 2017 to March 2018.

Methodology: Isolation of essential oil from Citrus peels powder was carried out by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of essential oil was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC MS) studies. Proximate analysis of peel powder was carried out through methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C). The essential oil was also analysed for its phytochemical composition. Antioxidant potential of citrus fruit peel oil was evaluated by a free radical scavenging effect on 1, 1 – diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from citrus fruit peels were found to be 0.3 ml/100 g peel powder. GC-MS studies revealed the presence of limonene (50.42%) as its major constituent. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins and steroids. Proximate nutritional analysis showed the presence of (%) ash (4.2), crude fat (3.4), crude protein (4.8), crude fibre (8.3) and sugar (7.2) content. The oil showed 15.79 and 69.87% radical scavenging activity at 200 and 2000 ppm respectively which is less than the standard ascorbic acid used.

Conclusion: Citrus peel is a promising source of various bioactive compounds that play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical Efficiency and Return to Scale in Yam Production in Tai Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

P. A. Ekunwe, A. Henri-Ukoha, R. Emmanuel

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41571

This study examined the technical efficiency and return to scale in yam production in Tai Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to profile the socioeconomic characteristics of the yam farmers, determine the technical efficiency of yam production, determine the factors influencing technical inefficiency and return to scale in yam production. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 75 yam farmers using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis were used in achieving the objectives. The results indicated that the average age and farming experience of the farmers were 41 years and 17 years respectively. Also, the mean household size was six persons. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 10.04% to 99.93% with a mean of 72.46%. Farm size, seed yam, hired labour and fertiliser were the significant factors that influence variation in yam output. Socio-economic variables such as gender, age, family size, marital status and educational level were found to have significant effects on the technical inefficiency among yam producers. The return to scale was 0.776 which indicated that the framers operated in stage II of the production process.  It was therefore recommended that yam farmers should reduce the use of yam setts as its coefficient shows negative sign to maximized yield.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Water Quality on the Abundance of Freshwater Mollusc in Biase, Cross River State, South-Eastern Nigeria

Usang Anok Ukam, Ajang Raymond Odey, Joseph Akaninyene Paul, Ivon Ettah Akpang, Udom Immaculata Patrick

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41705

The study on the distribution, diversity and abundance of freshwater mollusc in Biase Local Government Area was carried-out over a period of 3 months; July – September 2017. Mollusc were collected using a mesh scoop method, then put in a well labelled plastic container and preserved appropriately, before they were sorted and identified to species level in the laboratory using the freshwater mollusc identification guide. A total of 652 individuals of freshwater mollusc belonging to Ampullariidae, Thiaridae and Margaritiferidae families were observed through-out the study. Four species of fresh water mollusc were observed namely; Lanistes ovum, Lanistes libycus, Melanoides tuberculata and Margaritifera margaritifera. Ampullariidae family was the most abundant (475 individuals), while the Thiaridae family was the least abundant (27 individuals). Lanistes libycus was the most abundant species (290 individuals). The abundance of fresh water mollusc varied across sampling stations. The Shannon Weinner, equitability and Margalef index were generally lower than 1 and varied across all the sampling stations. The pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen varied insignificantly across the 4 sampling stations at p>0.05. There is a need for Government to enforce policies and laws against careless discharge of energies and waste into the study area and over-exploitation of these resources, so as to restore the ecosystem back to its normal quality, as well as prevent possible extinction of these resources. More of similar research should also be carried out regularly, so as to monitor any possible improvement in terms of species abundance and water quality.