Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Physical Properties of Okra Seed: Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)

Vinod Kumar, Vijaya Rani, Mukesh Jain, Anil Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Naresh .

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/40525

Physical properties of any seed are vital information for the development of its metering mechanism, processing, and storage system. An experiment was conducted to evaluate physical properties of okra seed of variety 'Varsha Uphar'. The study revealed that the average value of length, width, thickness and geometrical diameter of okra seed were 5.73 mm, 4.83 mm, 4.49 mm and 4.98 mm, respectively. The bulk density and true density okra seeds were found to be 0.54 g cm-3 and 1.07 g cm-3, respectively. The average volume of one okra seed was 108 mm-3. The average angle of repose of okra seeds was 28.65°, which ranged from 27° to 30°. The study also inferred that the roundness of the seed was 78.2% ranging from 68.4% to 89.5% whereas the sphericity of the seed was 87.9% ranging from 82.4% to 95.8%. The porosity of bulk of okra seeds was 49.1%, which varied between 43.9% and 55.0%. The average weight of 1000 okra seeds varied between 53.2 g and 57 g with an average value of 55.16 g.


Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Features of the Renal Arteries in Indian Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)

B. Padmasri, D. Pramod Kumar, G. Purushotham, K. B. P. Raghavender

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/41000

Histological features of renal arteries of pig revealed a typical muscular artery structure with three layers within outwards viz., tunica intima, media and adventitia. Sub-endothelial connective tissue was minimal and limited by clear undulating internal elastic membrane. Tunica media in all three renal arterial segments i.e., proximal, middle and distal from aorta to the renal hilus. Around twenty rows of smooth muscle cells were arranged in circular fashion in tunica media. Their outer boundary was limited by fragmented thin wavy outer elastic membrane. Tunica adventitia comprised predominantly collagen and few elastic fibres which encroached into margins of tunica media and formed a circular out line around longitudinal bundles of smooth muscle. The outer elastic membrane was split into more than one row in distal segments and was seen coursing in between layers of smooth muscle.


Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Integrated Nutrient Management on Nutrient Uptake by Cotton and Soybean in Intercropping System

Amit M. Pujar, V. V. Angadi, J. A. Hosmath

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/38839

A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of integrated nutrient management practices on nutrient uptake by cotton and soybean intercropping system in 1:2 row proportion during (summer crops) Kharif 2015 and 2016 at All India Coordinated Research Project on Soybean, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. The field experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications and twenty treatments. Treatment comprised of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients used in different combinations. Soybean introduced as intercrop in cotton with 40 x 10 cm spacing for soybean and 120 x 60 cm for cotton. Results revealed that amongst 20 different types of plants and some types which initially uptake the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium that were significantly higher in it (150% RDF for cotton and soybean) and show same respond likewise of other prototypes (125% RDF for cotton and soybean). It could be concluded that application of 125: 62.5: 62.5 kg N, P2O and K2O ha-1 in cotton and soybean intercropping system or 100:50:50 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1 along with Gliricidia + Pongamia 2.5 t ha-1 each for cotton and soybean intercropping was found to be optimum for efficient mineralization of nutrients for higher nutrient uptake by the crop .


Open Access Original Research Article

Does Axial Length Predict the Depth of Amblyopia in Anisometropic Patients?

Reşat Duman, Huban Atilla, Emine Çatak

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/40249

Purpose: To compare the refractive errors, keratometric and biometric variables among the patients with anisometropic amblyopia and to evaluate the relationship between the depth of amblyopia and the degree of anisometropia and binocularity.

Study Design: A prospective cohort, clinical study.

Setting: Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital, TR.

Methods: Thirty-eight anisometropic amblyopic patients had detailed ophthalmological examinations including keratometry and axial length measurements and the results were compared.

Results: In all subjects, there is a positive correlation between axial length measurement and anisometropia was found to increase with an increase in axial length (p = 0.000). The depth of amblyopia was not statistically related to the anisometropic spherical value (p = 0.09). Nevertheless, in the anisometropic subjects with suppression, the spherical refractive error was significantly higher (p = 0.009). Keratometric measurements were not significantly different in amblyopic eyes in comparison to the sound eyes (p = 0.15).

Conclusions: In anisometropic subjects, we found that there was a significant relationship between the suppression and the axial length. We have shown that axial length is a significant predictive value in terms of binocular vision functions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement on Profile Path Reduction Factors for Rain Attenuation Predictions Using Vertically – Pointing Radar for Terrestrial and Satellite Applications in Tropical Region

J. S. Ojo, M. A. Asaolu, G. A. Ibitola

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/40446

More than ever before, applications of satellite services continue to gain recognition due to more growth in technological systems and applications. However, propagations along the Earth-space path suffer degradation due to hydrometeors such as rain, fog, haze, snow and hail. Among the hydrometeors, rain has been identified to be the most deterrent to satellite and terrestrial propagation links especially at frequency greater than 10 GHz. This paper proposes an improvement to effective path length for rain attenuation predictions in the tropic. Experimental data derived from vertically-pointing micro rain radar and Eutelsat 36B Ku-band link in Akure (Lat. 7º 25ˈE, Long. 5º 21ˈN), Southwestern Nigeria has been used. The proposed path length reduction model has been incorporated into the ITU-R model.  The reduction factors were estimated for different rain types based on 5-year data (2012 - 2016).Comparison with the ITU model and some existing models indicate appreciably improve prediction accuracy for the location based on average percentage error and root mean square. The result will be applicable to communication systems operating at high elevation angles over the study location.