Open Access Minireview Article

Prevalence and Sociocultural Patterns of Ecstasy Consumption

Rafael Nogueira Furtado

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/40235

This paper consists in a bibliographic analysis on the prevalence and sociocultural patterns of ecstasy consumption worldwide and, specifically, in Brazil. The abuse rates of ecstasy are increasing globally, so this article tries to determinate the users’ profiles, which have been established in recent years. Analysis’ content is presented by the following topics: 1) the history of ecstasy consumption; 2) its pharmacological and clinical features; 3) the sociocultural pattern of ecstasy use and its prevalence worldwide and in Brazil. Results show that ecstasy is consumed especially in party settings and nightclubs, by young single men, belonging to middle and high-classes. It is associated with a culture that values pleasure, freedom, youth, perceived as not dangerous. The substance, however, is not innocuous. It has dependence potential and the associated long-term physical and cognitive impairments are not fully known.


Open Access Original Research Article

Modified Variance Estimators for Non Response Problems in Survey Sampling

M. A. Bhat, T. A. Raja, S. Maqbool, S. A. Mir, Nageena Nazeer

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39643

In this present study, we have discussed the issue of presence and absence of non-response that we often face in survey estimation. We have suggested the estimators to estimate the finite population Variance in the absence and presence of non-response, using the linear combination of coefficient of skewness and quartiles as auxiliary information. The expression for mean square errors of suggested estimators has been derived up to the first order of approximation. The comparison of existing estimators with suggested estimators has been made through an numerical illustration to prove the efficiency of suggested estimators over existing estimators.


Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Agricultural Extension on Household Food Security Status among the Smallholder Farmers

J. M. Chege, J. K. Lemba, P. P. Semenye

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39267

Food security is critical to the economic, social, religious, political and cultural development Worldwide. It plays a great role in economic growth, poverty reduction and sustainable development in Kenya. A study was carried out in Kilifi South Sub-county in the coastal areas of Kenya, one of the areas where food insecurity incidences are prevalent. The study assessed the effect of the agricultural extension on household food security status among smallholder farming communities through interview schedules. Non-experimental design using descriptive survey was adopted for the study. Method of agricultural extension used, the motivation for participation in extension and technologies used concerning weather change data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The results indicated that 80% of all the farmers were food insecure. Those who used individual farm visits were 12% food secure while those whose motivation was increased farm productivity were 18% food secure. The farmers who planted early were 11% food secure. Farmers who used group method of an extension were 3% food secure while those who used farmer field days were 6% food secure. Farmers who were motivated to participate in agricultural extension to increase land fertility were 2% food secure while those who planted new varieties were 9% food secure. There was a significant (P= .05) positive relationship between food security and those who used individual farm visits, those who were motivated by increased farm productivity and those who practised early planting. This implies that individual farm visits, increased farm production and early planting are some of the most significant issues affecting food security in Kilifi South Sub-county. To further enhance the improvement of food security status in Kilifi South Sub-county, individual farm visits, increased farm production and early planting are necessary. This will help households make long-term investments in new agricultural innovations hence improved food production and food security levels.


Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability Analysis of Non-timber Forest Products Collected from Block A and Golf Course Forests of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

O. C. Ariyo, S. A. Oluwalana, M. O. Ariyo

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39588

The study was designed to analyse the profitability of non- timber forest products collected from Block A and Golf course forests of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A).  A total of 105 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed using copies of well structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis, Gross ratio, Operating ratio, Expense structure ratio, Return per capital invested and Benefit-cost ratio were used to analyse the data. The study showed that all the respondents involved in the collection of NTFPs were female and native of the area with the average age of 51 years. Majority were not educated, were married with 5-7 household size, 11-20 years of experience and are closer to forest by 2-5 km. The study further revealed that eight types of NTFPs which includes firewood, bamboo, palm kernel, water leaf, pseudocolocynth, gum tree, Oil bean seed and drum tree were collected with the total weight of 12,385 kg. Firewood formed the highest quantity of NTFP collected. The collection of NTFPs was profitable with a value of N3, 405.11 per respondent. Thus, it can be concluded that the collection of NTFPs from Block A and Golf course forests of I. I. T. A is a profitable and lucrative business. The study therefore recommends that the quantity, types and frequency of collection of NTFPs from the forests should be moderated to prevent degradation and loss of the forest for future generations. Also, the collectors should be restricted to Golf and Block A forest which serves as buffer zone and not encroaching into west bank forest which is protected.


Open Access Original Research Article

Planing and Turning Characteristics of Gmelina arborea Grown in Two Ecological Zones in Ghana

Stephen J. Mitchual, Maxidite A. Minkah, Francis W. Owusu, Reynolds Okai

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39024

Gmelina arborea grown in Ghana has not been promoted for its efficient use by the wood industry due to the limited technical information available and is therefore classified as a lesser-used timber species. This paper presents research findings on the planning and turning properties of Gmelina arborea cultivated in two ecological zones in Ghana. Samples of logs from six trees of the species were obtained from Daboase and Abofour in the Wet Evergreen and Dry Semi-Deciduous Forest zones of Ghana. These were crosscut into top, middle and butt sections using a chainsaw. An LT 15 Wood-Mizer bandsaw was used to saw each log into 2.6 cm-thick boards; these were then stacked for air drying. Planning and turning tests were conducted following the American Society for Testing and Materials International D1666-87-2004 method to determine the machining characteristics of the wood. The results of the study indicate that Gmelina arborea is a medium-density species and that irrespective of where it is grown, the best planing performance is obtained at a feed speed of 6 m/min using a cutting angle of 30°. The results also indicate that the turning characteristics of Gmelina arborea obtained from the two ecological zones were best at spindle speeds of 1850 rpm and 2500 rpm. At the 5% level of significance, the spindle speed and the interaction between location and spindle speed, tree section and spindle speed and location, tree section and spindle speed had a significant effect on the surface quality of the turned specimen. It is therefore found that Gmelina arborea cultivated in Ghana has good planing and turning characteristics.