Open Access Original Research Article

Inventory and Composition of Prevalent Agroforestry Systems of Kashmir Himalaya

Merajudin Dar, K. N. Qaisar, Suheel Ahmad, Akhlaq A. Wani

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39907

Agroforestry, which is the inclusion of woody perennials in farming systems, has been practiced as traditional land use and livelihood option in Jammu and Kashmir state of India since time immemorial. In the present investigation, Ganderbal district of Kashmir valley was selected with the objective to study the indigenous and prevalent agroforestry systems. The geographical area of the district is 39304 hectare, under which paddy is grown at about 8600 ha, wheat 50 ha, pulses  600 ha vegetables 1100 ha, fodder 3429 ha, oil seeds 3727 ha area. The cropping pattern is (paddy, maize, vegetables, and pulses) in kharif and oil seeds, oats, wheat and vegetables in rabi. Agroforestry systems have been classified according to the components present – trees with crops are referred to as silvoarable or agrisilvisulture, trees and pasture as silvopastoral, fruit trees and crops as horti-agriculture, fruit trees with pasture as hortipastoral and trees with crops and animals as agro-silvopastoral. A total of eight agroforestry systems, including, home gardens, horti-agriculture, boundary plantation, horti-silvi-pasture, horti-silviculture, horti-silvi-agriculture, silvopastoral and hortipastoral systems were reported from the study area. Among the woody perennials, the highest preference was for fruit-yielding tree species.


Open Access Original Research Article

Dual Fueling a Diesel Engine with Producer Gas Produced from Woodchips

Richard Bates, Klaus Dölle

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39431

The aim of this work was to study the diesel fuel savings in dual fueling a small diesel powered genset with a small Imbert style downdraft gasifier fueled with hardwood wood chips. Eight different runs were conducted, five with the engine fueled with diesel alone to characterize fuel consumption on diesel, three dual fueling the engine with diesel and producer gas.  Generator power to a portable electric heater was measured and diesel fuel savings calculated for the power generated. It was found that dual fueling the generator saved about ¾ of the diesel fuel needed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Integration of Some Components of Pest Management against Pod Pest Complex on Early Maturing Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]

Ram Keval, Hanumanth ., Snehel Chakravarty, Sabuj Ganguly

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39290

Aim: To evaluate the comparative efficacy of different insecticidal treatments against Helicoverpa armigera, Maruca vitrata, Melanagromyza obtusa, and Clavigralla gibbosa on two cultivars of pigeonpea.

Experimental Design: Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Kharif seasons of 2015-16 and 2016-17.

Methodology: The experiment consisted of seven treatments having different combinations of insecticides and biopesticides including untreated control. The effectiveness of these treatments was determined on the basis of percent pod damage due to significant insect pests on two early maturing pigeonpea cultivars (ICPL 87 and UPAS 120).

Results: There was a significant effect of variety (cultivar) and different insecticidal treatments on per cent pod damage and grain yield. However, their interaction (variety x treatment) exhibited no significant effect on pod damage. The treatment comprising of sequential application of Indoxacarb 15.8 EC @ 73 g a.i./ha followed by the second spray of Rynaxypyr 18.5 SC @ 30 g a.i./ha at 15 days interval was significantly superior in managing H. armigera, M. vitrata and M. obtusa, while, NSKE 5% - Indoxacarb 15.8 EC @ 73 g a.i./ha resulted in effective management of C. gibbosa on pigeonpea over rest of the treatments in terms of lower pod damage and higher grain yield. However, all the insecticidal treatments were found significantly superior over untreated control. The yield of the cultivar UPAS 120 was also found to be considerably higher than ICPL 87.

Conclusion: Use of UPAS 120 along with sequential application of Indoxacarb 15.8 EC @ 73 g a.i./ha - Rynaxypyr 18.5 SC @ 30 g a.i./ha or NSKE 5% - Indoxacarb 15.8 EC @ 73 g a.i./ha may be considered for recommendation in alternate sprays for managing major insect pests on early maturing pigeonpea in Varanasi region of Indo-Gangetic plain.


Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling of Two-Phase Gas Deviation Factor for Gas-Condensate Reservoir using Artificial Neural Network

Oluwatoyin O. Akinsete, Adedapo A. Omotosho

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39401

In petroleum engineering, reservoir fluid characterization is of great importance. Accurate determination of the two-phase gas deviation factor is essential in modeling gas-condensate and gas reservoirs, pipeline flow and reserve estimation, this is because the reservoir fluid is in a two-phase state at pressures below the dew-point pressure. Correlations are replete for predicting single-phase gas deviation factor using different Equation of State (EOS), but no correlation have been found to accurately predict the two-phase gas deviation factor.

Traditionally, the two-phase gas deviation factor for a gas-condensate fluid is determined experimentally in the laboratory, however, this laboratory experiments are quite expensive, though quite reliable. Hence, a need for simple but less expensive methods of determining the two-phase gas deviation factor. Thus, this present study modeled the two-phase gas deviation factor of a gas-condensate fluid using Artificial Neural Network (ANN), a biologically inspired non-algorithmic, non-digital, massively, parallel distributive and adaptive information processing system. Its ability to perform non-linear, multi-dimensional interpolations makes it unique and fit for this work.

The results obtained were compared to existing empirical and analytical correlations. Average absolute deviation (AAD), root mean square errors (RMSE) and correlation of determination (COD) between the ANN output and other correlations gave 1.343%, 1.344% and 61.6% respectively.

On the basis of the results, it was discovered that ANN approach is an improved, simple, less expensive and more accurate method of determining the two-phase gas deviation factor. ANN approach gives the closest value to the observed two-phase gas deviation factor from experimental work.


Open Access Original Research Article

Establishing the Knowledge of Health Information among Adolescent Postpartum Mothers in Rural Communities in the Denkyembour District, Ghana

Dominic Dankwah Agyei, Stephen Mensah Adu, Esther Asabea Yeboah, Gloria Tachie-Donkor

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39939

Purpose: The aim was to find out the knowledge of health information among adolescent postpartum mothers and their perceptions on how libraries can help in “ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all”.

Methodology: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted between September 2017 and October 2017. One hundred and one (101) participants were involved in this study. They included Fifty-three (53) adolescents and Forty-eight (48) adult postpartum mothers who were receiving postnatal services at the Takrowase, Kusi and Wenchi Health Centres in the Denkyembour District of the Eastern Region, Ghana. Questionnaire was used as the tool for data collection. 

Findings: All respondents in the case group 53(100.00%) and majority of the control group 47(97.92%) exhibited poor knowledge of libraries with majority of them having negative perceptions for the roles libraries play in disseminating health information. The need for information on “baby-related” and “health-related” issues was high among the study population, and there was no clearly identified source of information. However, the oral medium for information dissemination was highly acknowledged by the case group 51(96.23%) and the control group 47(97.92%).

Conclusion: Lack of awareness of libraries and their role in disseminating health information was the general view among the study population. Extension of library services to vulnerable people, particularly, adolescent postpartum mothers in rural communities will help make them information conscious, and it will help eradicate some basic health challenges faced by these women.