Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Evaluation of Freshwater Ornamental Aquatic Plant Waterwort, Elatine gratioloides A. Cunn under Different Organic Substrate

Sachin Onkar Khairnar, Vaneet Inder Kaur, Abhed Pandey, Sandeep Sharma

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39357

An investigation was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of different organic substrate on morphological traits of the freshwater ornamental aquatic plant, waterwort Elatine gratioloides in the mud pots of 3.5 L capacity at College of Fisheries, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab for 5 months duration. An experiment was planned in completely randomized design with five treatments viz., control- without manure (T0), Vermi compost (T1), poultry manure (T2), cattle manure (T3) and goat manure (T4) in triplicate to study the effect of organic substrate on growth and development of E. gratioloides. The study revealed that, increase in plant biomass, total plant length and number of leaf and runners was observed in treatments containing high nitrogen content. Comparatively, poultry manure (T2) illustrated superior results and showed significant difference among the treatments, except for the cattle manure (T3). Since cattle manure is easily available in local market at an affordable price; we recommend that its application @ 2% with soil/sand mixture (2:1) helps to increase plant biomass, total plant length and produced good leaf quality for culture and propagation of ornamental aquatic plant waterwort.


Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Growth Promoting Potential of Bacterial Endophytes from Medicinal Plants

Krupali B. Ramanuj, Harsha N. Shelat

Advances in Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/40014

Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface sterilized parts like leaf, stem, rhizome and fruit of medicinal plants viz. Azadirachta indica, Zingiber officinale Rosc., Chlorophytum borivilianum, Curcuma longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera (L) Dunal and Ocimum sanctum Lin. on various nutrient media. Out of thirty isolates, the best five cultures were selected on the basis of plant growth promoting abilities viz. phosphate solubilization, potash mobilization, production of IAA and siderophore, production of various enzymes like ACC-deaminase, cellulase, protease, lipase,  chitinase; antifungal activity and biochemical tests. On the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular ribotyping, endophytes were characterized as Bacillus tequilensis strain AAU K1, Bacillus endophyticus strain AAU K2, Beijerinckia fluminensis strain AAU K3, Bacillus safensis strain AAU K4 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AAU K5. Moreover, later three endophytes showed presence of nifH gene indicating nitrogen fixing ability.


Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Evaluation of Various Compositions of Biomass Waste Briquettes

C. H. Achebe, A. C. Umeji, J. L. Chukwuneke

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39270

This study focused on evaluation of energy values and performance of briquettes prepared from biomass wastes such as sawdust, rice husk and their composites using two binders (starch and clay) when fired in briquette stove. The briquettes produced are composed of locally sourced bio-wastes of uniform grain sizes (0.5 mm) and two binders in percentage composition of 90:10 which were sun-dried, prepared and compressed. Combustion-related properties (%volatile matter, % ash content, % fixed carbon and calorific value of raw materials) were determined for the sample materials (sawdust, rice husk and starch). Performance tests on 12 different briquettes which included water boiling time, burning time, ignition time, heating rate, fuel consumption rate and cooking efficiency test were carried out. The briquettes were subjected to energy evaluation tests using a bomb Calorimeter. The mean bulk densities of the briquettes produced from the different samples were determined. The test results show that the calorific value of mahogany sawdust, gmelina, oak, composite of mahogany/gmelina/oak, rice husk and gmelina/rice husk briquettes with binder starch were 4.516 kcal/g, 4.1487 kcal/g, 4.4312 kcal/g, 3.8614 kcal/g, 4.0531 kcal/g, 4.067 kcal/g respectively and with clay as binder were 1.9003 kcal/g, 1.5331 kcal/g, 1.8156 kcal/g, 1.2458 kcal/g, 1.4375 kcal/g, 1.4451 kcal/g respectively. The ignition time of 0.206 min, boiling time of 18.1 min, fuel consumption rate of 33.2 g/min and burning time of 42.21 min of mahogany briquette with starch binder is less than the values obtained for other briquettes while its cooking efficiency of 45.8% is greater than those of other briquettes. This therefore shows that it has better energy efficiency than other briquettes considered.


Open Access Original Research Article

Responses Regarding Sanitation Plan “Swachh Bharat Mission” in Local Hindi Newspapers

Ashma ., Rita Goel, Mujahid Khan

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39272

Sanitation is not only associated with internal beauty but also with the health of the people. For every human being; potable drinking water, sanitation and healthy hygiene practices are important to assist healthy life. The well known international organizations and other sanitation-related schemes or programmes like Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) cannot be ignored whenever sanitation and issues related to it become headlines. SBM came into reality to assure that each citizen of India should get access to basic requirements. The present study focuses on reading responses by the respondents regarding SBM in Hindi newspapers. Hisar city of Haryana state was selected purposively to study the reading responses towards SBM, in which total of hundred respondents from two wards (fifty from each) was interviewed randomly. The results indicated that all respondents agreed with the timeliness addition of information related to agriculture in the newspapers and majority of the respondents (95%) told that information related to entertainment, education and agriculture was highly relevant in the newspapers. Most of the respondents opined about the effectiveness of information published in sports section followed by agriculture and political sections. All respondents heard about the mission and 96 percent of them read news related to mission. Half of the respondents found the coverage regarding SBM somewhat adequate in the selected newspapers and felt that Dainik Bhaskar published content related to SBM could create awareness.


Open Access Review Article

Rice: Grappling with Cold under Climatic Changes, Global Impact and Counter Strategies

Ashutosh Gautam, J. Suresh, B. A. Gudade, A. B. Aage, Subhash Babu

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/35629

Rice has been staple food for more than half of the world population and presently it is one of the top three crops cultivated across the world in terms of area and production. Low temperature stress has been a critical factor year after year in determining the yield globally. Since last five decades many tactics there have been developed for countering the effect of low temperature stress in rice, which includes conventional as well as molecular. Here, we have reviewed recent progress in research on cold stress-mediated physiological traits and metabolites; elaborated their roles in the cold-response network and cold-tolerance evaluation. We also have discussed criteria for evaluating cold tolerance, evaluated the scope and shortcomings of each application. In this review,          various approaches for cold tolerance are discussed with special reference to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL).