Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Milk Type and Salt Concentration on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Mudaffara (Braided) Cheese

Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla, Habza Elamin Adam Gamer Eldin

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/33121

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of mudaffara cheese during the storage period. 

Methodology: Cheese was manufactured from raw cow milk and goat milk using starter culture and rennet. After forming, the curd was preserved in the salted whey (4%, 10% and 15%) for 24 hr, followed by preserving at 4°C for 30 days.  Physicochemical characteristics were determined at 1, 7, 15 and 30-day intervals.

Results: The results showed that all physicochemical characteristics were significantly affected by the type of milk and salt concentration except ash and acidity which were not affected by the type of milk.  The fat and moisture contents were high in cheese made from cow milk, while protein and total solids contents were high in cheese made from goat milk.  Fat, protein, total solids and ash contents were high in cheese brined with 15% salt, while moisture content and acidity were high in cheese brined with 10% salt.  During the storage period, fat, protein and ash contents fluctuated decreasing at day 7 followed by a slight increase at day 15 before decreasing towards the end.  The total solids content increased from 49.45% at day 1 to 55.16% at the end of the storage period, while moisture content decreased as the storage period progressed, and the acidity increased till day 15 (0.81%), then decreased to 0.79% at day 30.

Conclusion: Cheese made from goat milk had high protein, TS, ash contents and acidity,             while cheese made from cow milk had high fat and moisture contents. Cheese made with the addition of 15% salt had high fat, protein, TS, ash contents and acidity compared to other salt   levels.


Open Access Original Research Article

Calibration of Inductive Electromagnetic Meter for Determining Electrical Conductivity of UAS, Raichur Soil

Naseeb Singh, Premanand B. Dashavant, K. Sudarshan, Laxmi Kant Dhruw

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/38797

EM-38 electromagnetic induction sensor is a most useful instrument to determine the soil salinity. Significant positive correlation found between inductive electromagnetic meter (IEM) readings and saturated paste extract electrical conductivity (EC) revealed that this technique could be used for determination of soil salinity. However, calibration of the instrument is necessary for interpretation of instrument readings in terms of meaningful parameters of soil salinity. The calibration equations developed elsewhere may not predict electrical conductivity of UAS, Raichur soil accurately. So, in this study, calibration of EM-38 was carried out to find the soil salinity of experimental site soil. A multiple linear regression equation was developed which valid up to 20 cm depth after calibration of the instrument for experimental site soil and this equation considered reliable as it showed a significant positive correlation between predicted and measured soil salinity values. Co-efficient of determination (R2) value was 0.817 between predicted and measured EC values. While salinity measurements made with the EM-38 are not highly accurate, but measurements within reasonable accuracy can be made very rapidly. Hence, this equation enables the user of the EM-38 to derive a realistic index of salinity of soil under consideration in terms of EC.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Antidiabetic Effect of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Mangifera indica and Moringa oleifera on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Haris Ja’afar Bello, Jameela Abdulrahman, Abdullahi Muhammad Labbo, Anas Muazu, Mahmood Hassan Dalhat, Sadeeq Muhammad Sheshe, Abdulkadir Yusif Maigoro

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/39487

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading metabolic disorder as well as among the major cause of death in developing countries. Several plants were investigated as a possible remedy for the management of DM, however, Moringa oleifera (MO) is one of the widely used plants. Thus, the high demand and scarcity of MO in certain places necessitate an alternative plant for management of DM.

Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica (MI), MO and combinatorial formulation of ethanolic extract of both plants (MOMI).

Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg alloxan per kg body weight. Diabetes was confirmed in experimental animals three days after the injection. MI, MO and MOMI (a mixture of both) were administered to groups of animals receiving MI, MO and MOMI respectively. Blood glucose level was estimated three weeks after treatment and one week after withdrawal of treatment.

Results: The blood glucose of animals of all groups reduced significantly (P < 0.01) compared to diabetic control (DC) group. A significant increase in blood glucose (P < 0.01) in animals of MI group was observed one week after withdrawal of treatment whereas, the increase in MO and MOMI groups were statistically insignificant. Furthermore, a significant increase in body weight (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) was observed in treated groups (especially MOMI) compared to DC group.

Conclusion: The results of the study showed MO has a more antidiabetic effect compared to MI. Combination of both at 1:1 increases the antidiabetic effect of MI. Increase in body weight could not be a direct influence of the leaves.  Hence mixing MO and MI may be a good alternative for managing DM.


Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Ecology of Macrofungi in Rangamati of Chittagong Hill Tracts under Tropical Evergreen and Semi-Evergreen Forest of Bangladesh

A. Marzana, F. M. Aminuzzaman, M. S. M. Chowdhury, S. M. Mohsin, K. Das

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/36800

A detailed survey was made in Rangamati district of Chittagong hill tracts from July to October, 2016 to collect and record the morphological and ecological variability of macrofungi fruiting body. Collected macrofungi were washed with water and dried by electric air flow drier. Permanent glass slides were made from rehydrated basidiocarp for microscopic characterization. Morphology of basidiocarp and characteristics of basidiospore were recorded. Ecological features of the collected macrofungi and the collection sites such as location of collection, host, habit, frequency of occurrence, density and environmental temperature, soil type and soil moisture conditions were also recorded during collection time. A total of 66 samples of macrofungi were collected, recorded, photographed and preserved. Twenty species of macrofungi were identified under 17 genera and 15 families. The highest frequency of occurrence (44.44%) was recorded for Xylaria polymorpha. The highest density was found for Xylaria polymorpha also (55.56%) followed by Coprinus disseminatus (52.78%), Auricularia cornea (38.89%), Xylaria hypoxylon (27.78%) and Clavulina coralloides (16.67%). This is the first detail reports on macrofungi collected from Rangamati Hill Tracts forest of Bangladesh. Collected specimens were deposited to the SAU Herbarium of Macrofungi (SHMF).

Open Access Review Article

Review on Sea Turtle Nesting Grounds of Tamil Nadu

C. Sudhan, P. Jawahar, G. Sugumar, S. David Kingston

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2018/36716

Sea turtles are a large-shelled, oviparous animal, inhabiting tropical and subtropical seas  throughout the world, except in polar-regions that plays a vital role in balancing the marine ecosystem. According to Hindu culture, they were called “Kurmavatara”, which were the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Sea turtle populations in Tamil Nadu have been depleted, due to their overuse in trade and from accidental drowning in fishing gears such as gill nets and trawlers. During this review, 10 coastal districts were studied from literature sources and the review could identify more than 65 nesting sites for sea turtles along the coasts of Tamil Nadu, excluding islands of Gulf of Mannar.