Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Kigelia africana Fruit in Rats

Hayat M. Farah, Abdelrahim M. El Hussein, Hassan E. Khalid, Halima M. Osman

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/38539

Aims: To evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Kigelia africana fruit in Wistar albino rats.

Methodology: The aqueous extract of K. africana fruit was administered orally to the rats in group 2, and 3 at a dose of 50, 500 mg/ kg body weight, respectively for test of chronic toxicity. Group 4 received 2000 mg/ kg for acute toxicity, whereas Group 1 was kept as a control. The animals were observed for clinical signs and mortality. The weights of animals were recorded at a weekly interval till the end of the experiment, and blood samples were collected weekly for hematological test and biochemical analysis. Livers and kidneys with pathological lesions were kept in 10% formalin for histopathological investigation.

Results: All animals survived in the four groups, and no mortality was recorded. The percentage of weight gain was highest in the control group. The hematological and biochemical parameters were not affected in group 2 and 3.  White blood cells (WBC) were significantly (P<.0.05) increased in group 4 while red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (P< 0.05) decreased. Total protein, and albumin were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased; cholesterol, creatinine and Urea wee significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Bilirubin was not affected in all groups. Alanine Transaminase, ALT (Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase GPT), Asparate Transaminase, AST (Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase, GOT) and ALP (Alkaline phosphatase) were significantly elevated.

Conclusion: The highest dose of the aqueous extract of K. africana fruit may have some hepatorenal toxic effects.


Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variation of Bivalves of Intertidal Mangrove Area of Shirgaon, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

S. M. Karhale, A. D. Adsul, S. T. Indulkar, R. Pai

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/36786

A study has been made during February 2012 to January 2013 to know the pattern of bivalve fauna in the mangrove area of Shirgaon. During the present study, nine of bivalve, viz. Anadora granosa, Brachiodontes striatulus, Dosinia sp., Meretrix meretrix, Saccostrea cucculata, Lucina sp., Tellina palatam, Trapezium sublivigatum and Polymesoda expansa were recorded. The bivalves, Brachiodontes striatulus and Saccostrea cucculata were recorded throughout the year. The species such as, Lucina sp., Dosinia sp., P. expansa and T. sublivigatum have shown inconsistence occurrence during the study period while M. meretrix, A. granosa and T. palatam were recorded only once during September, June and May respectively.


Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Flowering and Yield Characteristics of Hybrid Tea Rose cv. Bugatti during Spring-Summer Months

S. Mondal, M. Mitra Sarkar

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/37580

The present investigation was conducted at Horticultural Research Station, Mandouri, BCKV, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India from February 2016 - March 2017 to study the influence of plant growth regulators on growth, flowering, yield and quality of Hybrid Tea rose cv. Bugatti during spring-summer months. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Block Design (RBD) with seven treatments and three replications. The experimental results revealed that GA3 (Gibberellic acid) at 200 ppm + BA (Benzyladenine) at 100 ppm showed maximum plant height (82.30 cm) and chlorophyll content (16.81 mg/g). The maximum secondary shoots (13.37), leaf area (41.45 cm2), stalk diameter (0.53 cm), flowering duration (22.15 days), vase life (7.04 days) were obtained in benzyladenine at 200 ppm. The treatment BA at 100 ppm showed maximum spread, flower diameter at cup shape and number of flowers per plant (yield). The maximum stalk length was under benzyladenine at 200 ppm + gibberellic acid at 100 ppm. The earliness of flowering was seen under GA3 at 100 ppm. The maximum intermodal length was found under GA3 at 200 ppm. Hence, it could be concluded that the highest values on vegetative and flowering parameters as well as flower quality were achieved in benzyladenine at 200 ppm as compared to other treatments.


Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetable Crops: Risks and Losses Faced by Farmers

Anju Duhan

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/38786

Farming activities take place in a highly variable biophysical and economic environment which poses numerous types of risks. Risk perception plays a key role in the production as well as investment behavior of farmers. But limited attention has been paid to understand its nature in cash-crop farming such as fruits and vegetables. To get the deeper understanding of the major factors constraining production of vegetables, an analysis of the farmers’ perception on various risk factors in vegetables is carried out. There are different types of the risks and uncertainties involved in different vegetable crops. The present study describes some of the factors constituting uncertainties that limit the farm production and productivity. The study is focused on the various risk factors that are highly worried by the sample population and highlights the losses caused by these factors which are involved in different vegetable crops. The study is conducted in Haryana state. The study also highlights the loss bearing capacity of the respondents and concludes that there is a great difference between the actual average losses experienced by the farmers and loss bearing capacity of the farmers. The study also gives suggestion to make stronger the economy of the farmers, all types of risks and crops should be covered under the insurance policies formulated by the government at present or in the future. Effective measures should be taken to properly manage the risks faced by the farmers.


Open Access Review Article

Effect of Brown Manuring on Soil Properties, Weed Density, Grain Yield and Economics of Different Crops

M. D. Iliger, Reshma Sutar, Shilpa V. Chogatapur, R. Parameshwarareddy

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/38527

Brown manuring in conjunction with pre-emergence herbicide(s) significantly improves the soil physico-chemical properties viz., organic matter, soil aggregation, available nitrogen, concentration of available nutrients in the root zone and reduces the bulk density, N-losses through leaching and soil erosion. Vegetative cover prevents the build-up of aggregates which could lead to the formation of surface crust which in turn increases soil infiltration rate. Integration of herbicide(s) with brown manuring markedly improved protein content in grain and protein yield than other management practices. Grain yield of direct seeded rice with Sesbania brown manuring was statistically at par with conventional transplanting of rice. Brown manuring can replace 25 per cent of nitrogenous fertilizer with the overall improvement of soil health. It aimed at suppressing the weeds by its competitive nature and shade effect with improvement in the soil physico-chemical and biological properties.