Open Access Policy Article

Causes of Academic Backwardness of Rural School Children in Selected States of India: An Evaluation

Gaytri Tiwari, Ruchi Galundia

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/37836

Most of the states in India are facing the problems of academic backwardness especially                 in rural villages. Academic stress in children can be present as physical, behavioral                         or emotional problems. The causes for a rural child being poor in academics are varied and       range from physical causes to psychological causes the later being more common.                 Present study was carried out in order to find out the reasons of academic backwardness among             rural school children between the age group of 11-17 years and to provide results based remedial solutions and interventions. For this purpose, samples were selected from different  villages of nine states in India which includes Assam (Jorhat), Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad), Haryana (Hissar), Himachal Pradesh (Palampur), Uttar Pradesh (Pantnagar), Rajasthan (Udaipur), Maharashtra (Parbhani), Punjab (Ludhiana), Uttarakhand (Dharwad). The academic achievement of school children was used and covers three major aspects on health, academics and family.                      Data analysis was done using frequency, percentage distribution and Chi-square test. Results revealed that in the eight states, the academic factor was the cause of the students’ poor achievement while in one state, Parbhani, health is the risk factor to the students’ academic achievement.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Long Term Fertilization on Soil Nutrient Status and Yield of Hybrid Maize under Finger Millet-Maize Cropping Sequence in an Irrigated Inceptisol

Pragyan Paramita Rout, N. Chandra Sekaran, K. Arulmozhiselvan, Dhaneshwar Padhan

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/38269

An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of long term application of inorganic fertilizers and organic manure on soil available nutrients, organic carbon and yield of hybrid maize during 2013-14 under finger millet-maize cropping sequence at TNAU, Coimbatore. The experimental results showed that the performance of hybrid maize in terms of both grain and straw yield was highest in the treatment receiving 100% NPK along with FYM (10t ha-1) recording an increase in grain yield of 12.6 % over 100% NPK. Similarly the different soil fertility parameters viz., available nutrients (N, P and Zn) and organic carbon content in soil showed significant improvement with integrated application of inorganic fertilizers in combination with FYM compared to control treatment.  A declining trend (471 to 605 kg ha-1) from its initial level (810 kg ha-1) of available K status was observed which shows a considerable mining of soil K under intensive cropping. However, the decline of K was of lower magnitude with 100% NPK + FYM (25.3%) and 150% NPK (27.9%) treatments indicating the need to raise the level of K fertilizer application to meet demand of crops. The fertility of the soil appears to be adversely affected due to imbalanced use of fertilizers viz., NP or N alone. Thus, balanced fertilization in combination with organic manure is necessary for sustain soil fertility and productivity of crops.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Availability from an Organic Fertilizer Produced by Chemical Decomposition of Solid Wastes in Relation to Dry Matter Production in Banana

Naveen Leno, C. R. Sudharmaidevi, P. Babu Mathew

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/38428

An investigation was carried out at the College of Agriculture, Trivandrum, Kerala, India to evaluate the suitability of an organic fertilizer produced by rapid chemical decomposition of organic waste as a substitute for farmyard manure for banana cultivation with reference to its effects on soil properties, nutrient availability and dry matter production. A field experiment for 11 months duration was conducted in banana (Musa spp. variety Nendran) in Randomized Block Design with eight treatments with three replications. The treatments were selected to compare conventional farmyard manure based and soil test based fertilizer recommendations with those of the newly produced rapid organic fertilizer. Treatments to study the combined effect were also included. Fertilizers were applied basally and in six split doses in accordance with the recommended package of practices. The fresh weight of the pseudostem, leaves, fruits and rhizome were recorded at harvest and dry matter production computed after oven drying the samples. The study revealed that the substitution of farmyard manure with rapid organic fertilizer imparted a better buffering action to soil with only 51.43% decline in pH, without significant changes in electrical conductivity and ensured a steady supply of major nutrients during the active growth stages of the crop. Total and fruit dry matter production also differed significantly. Hence it can be inferred that the organic fertilizer produced by rapid thermochemical decomposition of solid wastes can substitute farmyard manure for banana cultivation.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Agro-Potentiality of Treated Paperboard Mill Effluent Along with Organic Amendments on Growth and Yield Characteristics of Okra

Karthika Velusamy, C. Udayasoorian

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/36329

Field experiment was conducted in Indian Tobacco Company - Paperboards and Specialty Papers Division (ITC-PSPD) model farm, Thekkampatti, Mettupalayam, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu to assess the impact of ITC treated effluent and solid wastes on crop growth, yield and quality of okra and soil. The experiment was a 7x2 factorial arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The treatment combinations consisted of seven amendments and two sources of irrigation water (well water and effluent water). The seven amendments were T1-Control 100% NPK, T2-FYM 25 t ha-1+NPK, T3-ETP Sludge 5 t ha-1+NPK, T4-Biochar 2.5 t ha-1+NPK, T5-Vermicompost 3.5 t ha-1+NPK, T6-Pressmud 6 t ha-1+NPK and T7-Fly ash 5 t ha-1+NPK. Plant spacing used was 45 x 30 cm and irrigated at weekly intervals. The treated paperboard mill effluent and solid wastes generated from ITC (PSPD), Unit: Kovai for cultivating okra resulted in increased yield (37.8 per cent) and growth characteristics along with the application of vermicompost. This is because of the nutrients present in the treated paperboard mill effluent. The scientific ways and means of recycling this wastewater in an integrated, eco friendly manner is the main objective of this study.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Propagation and Analysis of Genetic Stability of In vitro Propagated Plants of Jaspi- A Clonal Rootstock of Prunus

Surbhi Mahajan, Neha Sharma, Rajinder Kaur, Shilpa ., Krishan Kumar

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/37784

A reproducible protocol for in vitro propagation of ‘Jaspi’- a Prunus rootstock was established. Jaspi is an improved rootstock dwarfing in nature and drought tolerant. The most efficient bud induction medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 0.75 mg/l Benzyl Adenine (BA) and 3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3). After four weeks, the shoot buds were fragmented and transferred to the medium of same composition for in vitro shoot multiplication. In vitro elongated shoots were successfully rooted and transferred to soil. The genetic stability of micropropagated plants was analysed by RAPD, SSR and ISSR molecular markers. The results indicated that almost no somaclonal variation was detected among the micropropagated plants.