Open Access Short Research Article

Determination of mtDNA Sequences by Using Novel Primers to Establish Intraspecific and Phylogenetic Relations of Hungarian Isophya (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) Species

E. Vadkerti, P. Putnoky, G. Hoffmann, F. Antal, M. Boros, K. Götzer, P. Kisfali, I. Mészáros, K. Nyárády, S. Stranczinger, A. Szloboda, S. Farkas, T. Karches, I. Matrai, Z. Varga, K. Pecsenye

Advances in Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/37016

Novel gene specific primers were designed for coding sequences of a part of 16S ribosomal RNA encoding gene and a piece of ND1 gene, separated by a short stretch of DNA that encodes a tRNA-Leu gene for Isophya species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vermicompost and Trichocompost in Combination with Inorganic Fertilizers Increased Growth, Flowering and Yield of Gladiolus Cultivar (GL-031) (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.)

N. Akter, K. A. Ara, M. H. Akand, M. K. Alam

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/37034

The yield and quality of flower is greatly influenced by the quantity and type of fertilizers used. Because of the hazards of long-term chemical fertilizer, more and more farmers all over the world are shifting to organic fertilizers for ensuring sustainable flower production. Keeping these points in view, present investigations were carried out to evaluate the combined impact of organic manure, inorganic fertilizer and bio-control agent on yield and quality of gladiolus at the Floriculture Research Field, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur from October, 2014 to May 2015. The single factor experiment consisted of eight treatments namely: T1: Control (Recommended dose of fertilizer) (N200 P50 K150 S30 B2Zn3kg/ha), T2:Tricholeachate (5000 l/ha) + ¼ RDF, T3:Bokashi (3 t/ha) + ¼ RDF, T4: Mustard oil cake (500 kg/ha) + ¼ RDF, T5:Trichocompost (3 t/ha) + ¼ RDF, T6: Farmyard manure (5 t/ha) + Trichocompost (3 t/ha) + ¼ RDF, T7: Poultry manure (5 t/ha) + Trichocompost (3 t/ha) + ¼ RDF and T8:Vermicompost (5 t/ha) + Trichocompost (3t/ha)+ ¼ RDF. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Application of organic manure, chemical fertilizer and bio-control agent showed significant variations on most of the parameters. Result revealed that early sprouting of corm (8 days) was recorded from treatment T6. The treatment T7 has taken the minimum period (68 days) for 80% spike initiation. The maximum length of spike (80.0 cm) and rachis (34.0 cm), number of florets/spike (16), number of spikes/ha (200000) was registered with the treatment T8. However, the highest number (2.5/hill) and weight of corm (60.0 g) and cormel per plant (20.0) was recorded with treatment T8. So, application of Vermicompost (5 t/ha) and Trichocompost (3t/ha) with ¼ RDF showed best result on yield and quality of gladiolus.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Response Surface Optimization of Bath Type Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) of Native Starch from Fresh Cassava Tubers

T. Krishnakumar, M. S. Sajeev

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/37317

The objective of this study was to calculate the optimum conditions for extraction of starch from fresh cassava tubers using response surface methodology (RSM). In this study, Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction process conditions (3 independent process factors at 3 levels with 17 runs) and to evaluate the main, linear and combined effects of cassava starch extraction conditions. The independent process variables selected in this study were sonication power (50, 75, 100 W), sonication time (10, 20, 30 min) and solid to solvent ratio (10, 20, 30 g/ml). The non-linear second order polynomial quadratic regression model was used for experimental data to determine the relationship between the independent process variables and response. Design Expert software (version 10.0.2.0) was used for regression analysis and Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ground cassava paste of 50 g was mixed with a proper quantity of distilled water. The suspension was directly placed in the bath sonicator (operating frequency of 33 ± 3 kHz, input voltage of 240 V and heating strength of 150 W), desired sonication power (W), sonication time (min) and solid to solvent ratio (g/ml) were maintained by means of controller. The optimal conditions of the selected variables were obtained using derringer’s desirability function as sonication power of 63.32 W, sonication time of 15.59 min and solid to solvent ratio (SS) of 19.19 g/ml) with a desirability value of 0.76. The maximum experimental cassava starch yield was 83.20% which was 8.2% higher than that of conventional wet extraction method. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the selected variables were validated (n=3), a mean starch yield of 82.28 ± 1.12% was obtained with adjusted R2 value of 0.85. Compared with wet extraction technique, UAE required shorter extraction time and yielded higher percentage of extraction recovery. Thus, UAE could be very effective for increasing the percentage recovery of starch from fresh cassava tubers.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Predicted Genetic Architecture for Number of Pods per Plant in Cowpea in Phosphorus Environments

Maureen Fonji Atemkeng, Gonne Sobda, Ousmane Bouka, Mitchell R. Lucas, Cisse Ndiaga, Pangirayi Bernard Tongoona

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/37672

Aims: The aim of the study was to analyze quantitative trait loci for pod number per plant in cowpea under different phosphorus environments.

Study Design: On the field, the experimental design was a split-plot with two replicates. The main plots were two phosphate levels: 0 P and 30 Kg P ha-1 (Triple super phosphate, TSP), while the 118 RILs and the two parents constituted the sub-plots randomized in a 12 x 10 α-lattice design. The experimental design for the pot experiment was a factorial randomized complete block design with two factors, and two replications. The factors were phosphorus levels (0 and 30 mg P per Kg soil) and genotypes.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at two sites. The first site was at the IRAD (Institut de la Recherche Agricole pour le Développement) research station, in Nkoemvone, in the HFZ of Cameroon while the second site was at Nkometou, a village in the Yaoundé neighborhoods, still within the HFZ of Cameroon.

Methodology: A RIL F11 population consisting of 118 lines derived from a cross between ‘58-77’ and ‘Yacine ’ using the single seed descend method was used in the study. The line ‘58-77’ (female parent,) is a black small-seeded local cultivar from Senegal resistant to pests and diseases with many pods per plant while ‘Yacine ’ (male parent) also from Senegal has large brown seeds but with very few pods per plant. Evaluation of cowpea RILs was done on low nitrogen plots both in the field and screen house and data collected on number of pods per plant. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed with the software SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA 2008).Marker genotype data for 118 RILs of the 58-77 x Yacine  population were generated from the Illumina GoldenGate assay of 1,536 genome-wide SNP markers derived from EST sequences. The software WinQTL Cartographer 2.5.  was used for composite interval mapping. QTL mapping was also performed using QTLnetwork 2.1 that uses a model that includes the effects of multiple QTL, epistasis, QTL-by-environment interactions and epistasis-by-environment interactions.

Results: Win Cartographer identified a total of eight QTL for Npod in all eight environments while QTLnetwork identified the following three main QTL (M-QTL) for Npod across the eight environments: qNpod2.1, qNpod5 and qNpod8. In total, three digenic epistatic interactions were detected for Npod across the eight environments. All three digenic pairs had epistasis main effects, and   epistasis by environment interaction effect [aae] affects in one environment.

Conclusion: This study shows that, two QTL with epistasis effect were found to also have significant additive by environment effects. This means that the usual estimates of QTL effects could be confounded by epistatic interactions and result in biased estimation unless epistatic effect are isolated.

 

Open Access Review Article

Organic Minerals in Poultry

Vinus, Nancy Sheoran

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/37878

Poultry is one of the most important source of animal protein for humans and now a days poultry production system is highly advanced and in context of nutritional advances a number of feed additives are now used to improve the efficiency of birds e.g. prebiotics, probiotics, organic acids etc. But in addition to these, chelated minerals/organic minerals has gained very much popularity. The word chelate derives from the Greek “chele”, which means tweezers or claw. They are the result of electron sharing between a metal and a ligand. A ligand is usually an anion or a molecule, which has an atom or a pair of electrons with available valences. Common ligands contain oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens, or a combination of these due to their electronic structure. Chelated minerals have non-metallic ligands, and are therefore organic. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response.