Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Analysis on the Application of Contemporary Methods of Maintenance in the Nigeria Automotive Industry

Simolowo O. Emmanuel, A. Oyekola James

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32664

Modern automobiles are now embedded with a lot of sensors and actuators controlling several systems in the vehicle, thereby making it an electro-mechanical means of transportation rather than the mechanical means known some decades ago. Consequently, several automobile diagnostic tools have been made available to diagnose faults developed by these modern automobiles. This paper analyses the impacts of the contemporary diagnostic tools for automobile maintenance/repair in the Nigerian Automobile Industry. Benz, Toyota, Honda, Kia, and Nisan are the sample model used for the research; On Board Diagnostic (OBD II); Coolant Tester; Pressure Test Kit; Spark Checker Kit; Fuel Injection Pump Tester; Compression Tester; Mechanic’s Stethoscope; Digital Multimeter, are the modern tools used for the study. In the study, various automobile repair and maintenance tools were investigated using a questionnaire administered to local and modern automobile repair garages. The impact of the modern automobile diagnostic tools on different car models, and different car systems has been studied. The study reveals that not all the modern tools are effective when used to diagnose faults. Fuel Injection Pump Tester is the most effective tool (with about 85% effectiveness), followed by Digital Multimeter (about 75% effectiveness), and OBD II (about 70% effectiveness). Compression Tester and Mechanic’s Stethoscope are less effective (about 40%), and many auto-technicians do not make use of them. Ignition, Fuel and Transmission systems are mostly maintained with these modern tools. Though all the respondents are aware of the paradigm shift in the automobile industry, almost all of them (95%) consented that there is need for modern diagnostic tools, but only 75% make use of these modern diagnostic tools.


Open Access Original Research Article

Community-based Fisheries Management Approach Adopted in Bangladesh

Ashley Stewart Halls, Md. Golam Mustafa, Malcolm Dickson

Advances in Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/36320

Aims: To promote the sustainable use of inland fisheries resources by empowering communities to manage their own resources.

Study Design: An investigation in the impact of the nationwide Community Based Fisheries Management (CBFM) approach to determine whether or not the approach was successful with respect to the management of floodplain-river fishery.

Place and Duration of Study: The study comprised community managed fisheries (sites) located in five different inland water habitat types in Bangladesh for the period 1997-2005.

Methodology: The assessment employed species-wise catch and gear-wise effort data sampled bi-monthly under catch assessment survey (CAS). Using quantitative indicators of fish production, abundance and biodiversity, the performance of community managed fisheries at up to 86 sites across the country was compared with that of fisheries managed under the existing government-driven regime using contingency table analysis and ANOVA. 

Results: Production was found to have increased significantly through time at CBFM sites but not significantly more than at the control sites. However, annual changes in fish abundance were significantly higher at CBFM compared to control sites. In contrast, fish abundance at control sites was found to have decreased significantly through time. Changes in biodiversity were also found to be both positive at CBFM sites and significantly greater than control sites. Changes in fish abundance and fishing intensity explained much (60%) of the variation in fish production. Less (up to a maximum of 24%) of the total variation in the fish abundance and biodiversity indicators could be explained by the type of management although the presence or absence of closed seasons was significant in both cases. Fish sanctuaries had no detectable effects on management performance. 

Conclusion: Community-based fisheries management appears to perform significantly better than the existing management regime in Bangladesh. Existing information sharing networks could support experimentation and learning under future initiatives. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Sensitivity Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration (ETO) Models for Irrigation Requirement of Crops and Impact of Irrigation on Climate Changes in Semi-arid Region of India

R. B. Singandhupe

Advances in Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/36093

Estimation of simple reference ETo model is being received considerable attention over the globally accepted FAO56 Penman-Monteith model, because the data generated from the fitted sensors of   weather stations are questionable. To solves this problem in research field of water management, we  tested  five  ETo models  and compared with  FAO56- PM by using 22 years  weekly weather data (1975 to 1996) of  irrigation command (CCA 80,800 ha) of semi-arid area of Maharashtra, India(long. 740 18′, lat. 190 45′, alt. 435 m). The Modified Penman model of FAO24 is quite effective against the FAO56 PM model but the former model requires both radiation and aerodynamic parameters for estimating ETo. The next temperature-based Hargreaves and Blaney Criddle model provided very significant effect as these models have expressed minimum RMSE, MBE, RE and high D-agreement. Development of water resources and irrigating seasonal field and horticultural crops in this semi-arid area has changed the physiological and physical attributes of vegetations. Due to more vegetation cover and cooling effect in irrigated area, the relative humidity has increased and evaporation rate, wind speed has decreased. When it was regressed with various weather parameters the temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and duration of bright sunshine have expressed positive effect and rainfall has shown negative effect on water loss from pan evaporimeter.


Open Access Original Research Article

Is Mercy Killing Right or Wrong? – Opinions of Clinical Students in Three Nigerian Tertiary Schools

Adewale Ismahil Badru, Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/29517

Objectives: To explore the opinions of medical, dental, physiotherapy, and nursing students in three tertiary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, towards the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Methodology: This research was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Questionnaires were issued to 450 students who volunteered to participate in this study, and only 433 participants returned their questionnaires filled.  Out of the 433 questionnaires returned, 7 were discarded due to incomplete data. Only the data of 426 respondents were computed and analysed in this study. Results: The majority (88.7%) of our respondents were single, 60% were females, and those studying for the General Nursing diploma certificate were younger (mean age=19.6 years) than those studying other courses. The majority (31.2%) were also studying Medicine. Only 83.1% of them have heard of the term “euthanasia”, 81.2% had encountered patients diagnosed with terminal illness during the course of their current education. The mean Likert scores of the medical and dental students indicated that the majority of them were of the opinion that it is morally right to render euthanasia to the brain-dead, if his/her children/parents requested for such. Furthermore, many of our respondents’ religion (49.1%) and culture (46.2%) did not support the practice of euthanasia. Less than one-fourth (22.1%) of our respondents were of the opinion that euthanasia should be practised in Nigeria, 46.7% were of contrary opinion, while 31.2% were yet to decide. Conclusion: Euthanasia remains an issue of debate among students of clinical sciences.


Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Farming Systems Approach of PAU Awardee Farmers for Income and Employment Enhancement in Punjab

Ravinder Singh, T. S. Riar, Jagjeet Singh Gill

Advances in Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33795

A study was conducted during 2011-12 on the Punjab farmers  under the name of “Integrated Farming Systems Approach of PAU Awardee Farmers for Income and Employment Enhancement in Punjab” to find productivity, profitability and employment generation of integrated farming system as compared to conventional cropping system under Punjab conditions. The study comprised of two integrated farming systems viz., crop + fruit farming system and crop + poultry farming system. Both these integrated farming systems were productive and profitable than that of sole cropping system. The net returns increased by 3.24 per cent and .60 per hectare with inclusion of fruits and poultry enterprises, respectively over sole cropping system. The study also indicated that crop + fruit farming system generated 28.51 mandays/hectare/annum/farm employment for family, 44.57 mandays/hectare/annum/farm for hired labour and 73.08 mandays/hectare/annum/farmers total labour. In case of crop + poultry, it was observed that employment generated through crop + poultry farming system for family labour was 36.54 mandays/hectare/annum/farm, for hired labour was 58.25 mandays/hectare/annum/farm and for total labour was 94.79 mandays/hectare/annum/farm.