Open Access Original Research Article

Principal Dimensions of Regional Agricultural & Socio-economic Disparities in Haryana

Ekta Hooda, B. K. Hooda, Veena Manocha, Nitin Tanwar

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34767

The present study is an attempt towards identification of principal agricultural and socio-economic dimensions in Haryana using principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correlation analysis techniques. Principal component analysis transforms the original set of variables into a smaller set of linear combinations that account for most of the variation of the original data whereas canonical correlation analysis determines pairs of canonical variates which are orthogonal linear combinations of the variables within each set that best explain the variability both within and between sets. Canonical correlation analysis also identifies and measures the strength of relationships between two vectors of variables measured on the same individuals. The study was conducted for three periods i.e. 1991-92, 2001-02 and 2011-12. The district was considered as the unit of analysis and analysis is based on 19 indicators from the agriculture sector and 9 indicators from the socio-economic sector. The first principal component (PC) of agriculture sector represents the overall level of agriculture and livestock with 42.07, 28.71, and 28.01 per cent of the total variation in periods 1991-92, 2001-02 and 2011-12. Whereas, the first PC of socio-economic sector extracted 43.2, 42.6 and 56.6 per cent variation for the periods 1991-92, 2001-02 and 2011-12, respectively. Population density per sq km, number of vehicles on road/lakh population and number of cooperative societies/lakh population have been most important variables for the first principal component from the socio-economic sector in the periods 1991-92 and 2001-02. However, infant mortality rate, number of vehicles on road/lakh population and main workers as percentage of total population has observed to be the most important indicators during 2011-12. Canonical analysis of first two PCs from each of the agriculture and socio-economic sector indicated that the dimensions represented by the second principal component of agriculture sector and first principal component of socio-economic sector established a strong association between the agriculture and the socio-economic sectors. The significant canonical correlation between the vectors represented by first two PCs of agricultural and socio-economic sectors suggest that developments in socio-economic sectors and agricultural sectors go together. That is socio-economic development in Haryana can be achieved through development in agriculture.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Variations of the Numbers of Species Recorded 1-, 2-, … x-times (Singletons, Doubletons, … x-tons) with Increasing Sampling-size : An Analytical Approach Using Taylor Expansion

Jean Béguinot

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/35223

The process of species accumulation, during progressive sampling, results in the regular, monotonic increase of the number of recorded species with sampling size. On the contrary, the numbers f1(N), f2(N), f3(N), …, fx(N) of those species recorded 1-, 2-, 3-, …, x-times at sampling-size N all show non-monotonic variations with N. The major characteristic elements of this non-monotonic variations (namely: the maximum reached at ∂fx (N)/∂N = 0 and the inflexion point at ∂2fx (N)/∂N2 = 0) provide interesting cues regarding the degree of advancement of sampling completeness. Such cues yet remain undetectable however along the regular, monotonic increase of the species accumulation curve itself. Although usually unrecorded, the variations of the fx(N) may yet be computed and, accordingly, the associated cues above thereby made available in practice. This computation involves the Taylor expansion of the fx(N), making use of recently derived mathematical properties of the species accumulation process. For common practice, focus is placed upon the variations of the fx(N) of lower-orders (i.e. f1(N), f2(N), f3(N), f4(N)), which is sufficient to disclose information of particular relevance in assessing the progress of sampling towards completeness.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Production of Cellulase from Chemical and Biological Pretreated Groundnut Husk

N. Aliyu, H. Kassim, H. Aliyu, R. J. Abu, Z. Adamu

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/18155

Lignocellulose biomass was bioconverted with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride to produce cellulase. Groundnut husk is a cheap and readily available substrate with potential for bioconversion. Cellulase production from alkali and biological pretreated groundnut husk was compared in this study. Rapid production of cellulase following FPase & CMCase derived from both organisms were observed. Enzymatic activities in all the pretreated GH increased steadily from day one and peaked at day seven. Biological pretreated GH showed significant (p<0.05) increase in total cellulase and endoglucanase yield (activity) than alkali pretreated GH.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antagonistic ACC Deaminase Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens with Polymer Seed Coating for the Management of Rice Fallow Black Gram Diseases

K. Raja, M. Karthikeyan, I. Johnson, P. Latha, D. Saravanakumar

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34227

Plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were tested for their capacity to overcome the water stress under rice fallow condition in black gram plants. Among the different bacteria used, P. fluorescens TRRI-1 were exhibited the highest antagonistic activity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase positive reaction to PCR amplification, increased the vigour index, Germination, Seedling dry matter production, No. of nodules in black gram seedlings grow out test and pot culture. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of stress-related enzymes indicated the greater activity of catalase and peroxidase in black gram plants bacterized with P. fluorescens TRRI-1 when compared to untreated plants. The greater accumulation of proline was recorded in TRRI-1 treated plants compared to untreated plants. The greater activity of stress-related enzymes in green gram plants mediated by PGPB could pave the way for developing drought management strategies. The field trials revealed the greater reduction in disease incidence and increase yield by black gram plants treated with P. fluorescens TRRI-1compared to untreated plants. The promising role of antagonistic and ACC deaminase from Ps. fluorescens strain TRRI1 in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses has been concluded in black gram plants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Packaging on Shelf Life and Quality of Fenugreek at Different Storage Conditions in Kharif Season

J. K. Dhemre, M. B. Shete, V. P. Kad, P. M. Kotecha

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/35266

Aims: The research work was carried out to study the effect of different packaging materials on quality of fenugreek and to study the shelf life of fenugreek at different storage conditions in kharif season.

Study Design: The fresh fenugreek samples were packed with 100 g weight in different polyethylene (100, 200 and 400 gauge) and butter paper bags with 2, 4 and 6 per cent vents and without vents. Sixteen treatment combinations comprising of polyethylene and butter paper bags. The experiment was laid in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The present research work was carried out in the Post Harvest Technology Centre, Department of Horticulture, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri during the year 2014-2015.

Methodology: The fresh fenugreek packed samples were further stored in cold storage (CS), zero energy cool chamber (ZECC) and room temperature (RT). The effect of packaging and storage on moisture content, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll content, iron content, physiological loss in weight and rotting was studied.

Results: The findings of the present study revealed that the composition of fresh fenugreek was found to be 89.08 per cent moisture content, 393 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, 62.72 per cent chlorophyll content and 52.38 mg/100 g iron content in kharif season. All samples of fenugreek packed in different packaging materials showed decreasing trend of moisture content, ascorbic acid content, chlorophyll content and iron content. However, they showed increasing trend of rotting and physiological loss in weight.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that Fenugreek packed in 400 gauge polyethylene bags without vents were found to be the best packaging material for extending the shelf life upto 10 days in CS followed by 4 days in ZECC and upto 2 days at RT in kharif season.