Open Access Short Research Article

The Challenges of New Product Development in a Developing Economy

M. O. Oduola, A. M. Yakubu

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33027

New Product Development (NPD) involves creating a new product from concept to the market. The product could be entirely new or rebranding. It is a critical focus of any production firm. The increase in volume of new competitive products is an indicator of any fast growing production concern. However the challenges that could affect development of a new product in a developing economy include, but not limited to the following: Inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of funding, low technological skill, lead time for product development, poor marketing strategies and post product evaluation. There are few studies dedicated to New Product Development (NPD) in this hypercompetitive de-regulated industry today, hence the need to study the probable challenges to be encountered in developing new product becomes necessary. Profit and value added oriented industries have structured organization that facilitates new product development. Such products are developed to satisfy customers’ needs at a time. One critical factor that could be used to assess the acceptability of any new product in the market is the post market performance analysis. However the magnitude of this analysis is not isolated from those challenges peculiar to New Product Development. This study highlights method and stages that project managers require to develop quality new products with challenging time-to-market goals.

Open Access Minireview Article

Ohmic Heating Technology and Its Application in Meaty Food: A Review

Rishi Richa, N. C. Shahi, Anupama Singh, U. C. Lohani, P. K. Omre, Anil Kumar, T. K. Bhattacharya

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33799

The purpose of the current review paper is to investigate and analyze about the effects of ohmic heating (OH) different application in the field of fish, meat and its product and compare it with other conventional thermal methods of food processing such as thawing, heating, cooking etc. Food quality, food safety, convenience, freshness, healthy food, natural flavor and taste with extended shelf-life are the main criteria for the demand made by today’s consumers. Ohmic heating is a substitute of conventional heating method of food commodities. It has shorter heating times, avoid hot surfaces and help to minimize temperature gradients. Product parameters such as electrical, thermo-physical and rheological properties of the food and process parameters such as the current frequency, electrode material and the geometry of ohmic chamber affect the process. as a result various application of OH are found such as  heating, evaporation, dehydration, extraction, waste water treatment, thawing, cooking of different type fish and meat and its product such as meat ball, hamburger patties surmi, beef, turkey etc.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Aspects of Nutrient, Antinutrient, Minerals and Sugars Contents of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benn.) Seeds

G. O. Oyeleke, R. O. Adetoro, R. T. Lawal, M. A. Salam

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33423

Thaumatococcus daniellii is an under-exploited, wild rhizomatous perennial herb from Africa that is classified as one of the non-timber forest products. The aril contains an intensely sweet and non-toxic protein used as sweetener in food and other related industries. This study evaluated the nutrient, antinutrient, minerals and sugars contents of T. daniellii seeds. The proximate analysis of the seeds in percent on dry basis revealed 9.18±0.04 ash, 10.52±0.10 moisture, 2.48±0.02 crude fat, 29.45±0.13 crude fibre, 6.67±0.05 protein, 41.70±0.73 carbohydrate and the energy value was calculated to be 213.29±0.11 Kcal/100 g. Minerals analysis of the seeds in mg/kg revealed the presence of sodium 113.00±0.01, potassium 155.30±0.00, calcium 56.00± 0.02, magnesium 62.00±0.01, iron 1.05±0.00, zinc 1.24±0.00, phosphorous 112.00±0.01, manganese 0.11±0.00 and copper 0.12±0.00. Anti-nutrients analyses of the seeds are phytates 7.98±0.02%, tannins 0.49±0.01 mg/g, oxalates 7.84±0.15%, flavonoids 7.89±0.01 mg/g and total phenols 6.25±0.01 mg/g. Sugar analysis of the seeds gave the presence of the followings in mg/g; glucose 74.25±0.10, fructose 78.75±0.02, invert sugar 76.35±0.21, maltose 115.20±0.05 and sucrose 71.25±0.11 while total and reducing sugars in % gave 2.06±0.01 and 8.25±0.03 respectively. The research work revealed the potentials of the seeds for both domestic and industrial usage.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Suitability of Rain Water Harvesting Areas Using Multi-Criteria Analysis and Fuzzy Logic

E. N. Mosase, B. Kayombo, R. Tsheko, M. Tapela

Advances in Research, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33983

Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) is any system that encompasses methods for collecting, concentrating and storing various forms of runoff for various purposes. Agriculture in semiarid tropics depends on the vagaries of weather, especially of the rain. Without doubt, the greatest climatic risk to sustained agricultural production in these areas, including Botswana, is rainfall variability. RWH has the potential to mitigate spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Many methods of evaluating suitability for RWH, however, have limitations and/or drawbacks.

This study presents an approach that will enable water managers to assess suitability of RWH for any given area by taking advantage of the capabilities of Earth Observation (EO) techniques and fuzzy multi-criteria analysis. Literature shows that the incorporation of fuzzy logic to multi-criteria analysis can improve the results in suitability analysis hence the study to explore these capabilities in RWH.

South East District of Botswana was used as the study area to identify suitable areas for macro RWH techniques using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Fuzzy AHP integrated in GIS and RS. The study area was suitable for over 80% of the area, with AHP approach showing 87.1% suitable while Fuzzy AHP showing 92.2%, distributed between highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2) and marginally suitable (S3). Validation process shows existing water bodies occupying only highly suitable area (44%) and moderately suitable (56%) and this was a good indication that the model has a good level of accuracy. Field visit showed an accuracy of 57% comparing model results with actual situation on the ground.

In conclusion, even though AHP is widely used in the decision analysis, it is not capable of modeling the uncertainties inherent in the criteria and the confidence of the decision maker. Fuzzy AHP is seen to perform better as it incorporates the techniques of AHP, fuzzy numbers, fuzzy extent analysis, alpha cut and Lambda functions which are able to model the uncertainties inherent in the criteria and confidence of the decision maker since the process of decision making involves a range of criteria and a good amount of expert knowledge and judgments which in turn affect the outcome greatly.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliage Cuttings on Seed Yield and Quality of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

Pradeep Singh, V. S. Mor, Mujahid Khan, Sunil Kumar

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33354

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an important seed spices crop of family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) and possess 2n=22 chromosomes with cross-pollination as mode of reproduction. A field experiment was conducted at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to study the effect of foliage cuttings on seed yield and quality of Coriander. The Research material comprised of four genotypes viz. DH-5, DH-36, DH-228 and DH-246 was grown with three replications in factorial RBD. The foliage cutting was taken to make different treatments i.e. C0 (without cutting), C1 (one cutting at 45 days after sowing) and C2 (two cuttings at 45 days and 60 days after sowing). The investigation resulted that number of foliage cuttings reduced the plant growth, seed yield and quality of coriander. The crop without cutting of foliage gave the maximum plant growth along with highest seed yield which was followed by one cutting and lowest performance was observed after two cuttings. The increase in number of foliage cuttings of coriander significantly reduced the growth parameters of plant such as plant height, number of branches per plant, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel, number of seeds per umbellate, foliage and seed yield. The increase in number of foliage cutting also influenced the seed quality of coriander seed. The best quality seed with highest value of seed quality parameters such as test weight, standard germination, seedling length, seedling dry weight, vigour index-I, vigour index-II, field emergence index and seedling establishment, seed was harvested from without foliage cutting followed by one cutting at 45 days and two cuttings at 45 and 60 days after sowing. The genotype Hisar Anand (DH-5) was found best seed producing genotype. Whereas, Hisar Bhoomit (DH-228) was found best genotype both for foliage yield and seed yield.