Open Access Short Research Article

Geophysical and Geotechnical Evaluation of Erosion Sites in Ebem-Ohafia Area of Abia State, Southern Nigeria

C. Amos-Uhegbu, U. J. John

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/31538

This work is an integrated evaluation of the external and internal structures of an erosion site in Ebem-Ohafia area of Abia state, Nigeria using the geophysical and geotechnical methods of investigation. The geophysical method used was the electrical method which employed the Schlumberger electrode configuration with maximum half current electrode spacing of AB/2 = 165 m, and 4 vertical electrical sounding (VES) data were acquired. Results show that the top soil resistivity values vary from 58.8 Ωm – 886.6 Ωm, that of the weathered layer vary from 100 Ωm - 3586.6 Ωm; and the maximum depth of each sounding location varies from 33.4 m - 59.6 m. In the geotechnical approach, four soil samples from each of the sounding locations were used for the study. The geotechnical results show that the soil has relatively high clay content with plasticity index ranging from 6.0% -12.0%. The consistency limits of the soils generally indicate low to medium plasticity. The natural moisture content varies from 5.3% to 9.4%; while the liquid limit ranges from 27.4% - 41.1%. By using the resistivity values together with plasticity index in the evaluation, it is established that the higher the value of layer resistivity, the lower the plasticity index of the layer. This indicates that the vicinity of VES 1 is the most erosion-prone locality in the study area, while the vicinity of VES 4 remains stable. The plastic index of the soils within the area is adjudged to be of low to medium plasticity (,20%); hence, the soils are expected not to exhibit high cohesion potential. It was however concluded that geomorphologic and anthropogenic factors are the major causes of the erosion menace in the area. Subsequently, good agricultural practices and regulars monitoring of the area is recommended.


Open Access Short Research Article

Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network - LEACH

Kanika Bindal, Shalley Raina

Advances in Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34245

Aim: Wireless Sensor Network is spatially distributed autonomous sensor to monitor physical and environmental conditions. Energy is the scarcest resource of WSN nodes, and it determines the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, algorithms and protocols need to address the issues such as increased lifespan, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. For energy efficiency we have various routing protocol.

One of them is HEEMCP Protocol which has been discussed in the below paper along with other protocols.

Study Design: MATLAB is being used for simulating the networks.

Place and Duration of Study: Swami Parmanand College Lalru, between Jan 2017 to June 2017.

Methodology: It included following steps:-

·         Survey of the literature related to the proposed work.

·         Implementation /simulation of cluster using MATLAB.

·         Implementation/simulation of LEACH, Hetero-LEACH, SEP and EEHC protocols using MATLAB.

·         Implementation/simulation of the HEEMCP using MATLAB.

·         Comparison of LEACH and HEEMCP.

Results: “Table 1: Comparison between Various Energy Efficiency Protocol” discussed below clearly states that HEEMCP is 5 times more energy efficient as compared to other protocols discussed such as EEHC,SEP,LEACH

Conclusion: HEEMCP Protocol is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Variations of Weeds Seeds of Species Belonging to Poaceae on the Basis of Germination, Production and Morphological Characteristics

Meriem Hani, Rafika Lebazda, Mohamed Fenni

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33747

Aims: Seed characters are very helpful for identification of a large number of species or genera. In many cases, morphological characteristics, germination and production of seeds, can be used to distinguish species and varieties.

Methodology: Study it thoroughly in the laboratory where researchers often observe it by naked eyes, in addition to the reliance on references and researches concerning describing seeds to make the study effective and successful it must be conducted carefully with continual vigilance because of the smallness of some seeds so we use magnifying glass, the optical microscope and pocket lamp to see the different external parts of seeds. Germination of seeds was carried out in laboratory under different temperature (5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 20°C, 25°C, 30°C). Production of abundant small seeds is a common adaptation that ensures a high probability of dispersal and re-infestation. Eight characteristics were used to identify eight species of seeds which belong to Poaceae family. The morphological characteristics in which the study was based on are: shape, color, size (length, breadth), solidity, brightness, surface, appendages, weight per 100 seeds. Considerable differences were noticed between the various species of weeds seeds.

Results: The seeds of the family have great variation in their seed mass and size, considered one of the important factors affecting germination percentage and production rate. Germination percentages ranged from 80% to 100%, depending on the species and temperature. The highest germination percentages were reached at alternating temperatures (05°C/30°C). Studies on seed production potential in Bromus sterilis, Bromus rubens, Bromus lanceolatus and Bromus madritensis showed that each plant produces an average of 3700±637, 5000±592, 3000±380 and 4500±426 seeds respectively. Lolium rigidum produces 950±304 seeds /plant whereas Lolium multiflorum produces 900±258 seeds/Plant. One isolated Avena sterilis plant can produce over 235±14 seeds. Thus Avena alba produced 64±15 seeds per plant. Each weeds species shows morphological characteristics different from the plant or other species, these morphological characteristics are not restricted to the external form of the plant only but it can be on level of different other parts of plant like fruit and seed.

Conclusion: The study showed that the seeds morphological characteristics can be helpful in identification of species. The ability to produce seeds with big capacity of germination is, most probably, a mechanism by which species of Poaceae as other weed species adapts to new environmental situations and ensures its survival by facilitating the dispersal of its seeds in time and space.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Groundwater Potential Using Integrated Geophysical Data in Parts of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Southern Nigeria

C. Amos-Uhegbu, M. U. Igboekwe, K. T. Eke, U. K. Eme

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32121

This study was carried out to investigate the groundwater potential in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike area of Abia State, Nigeria. A total of nine vertical electrical soundings were acquired and the results were correlated with records available from an existing well together with previous lithologic deductions. A range of 4 to 6 geoelectric layers was delineated in this study; though the fourth and fifth geoelectric layers were predominant. Results showed that the aquifer is located within the third layers for the 4-layered zone and the fifth and sixth layers for the other layered zones. The depth to the shallowest aquifer is about 30m at VES 4 with the aquifer resistivity of 13124Ωm and transmissivity of 258.6 m2/d. The area has huge groundwater potentials with the best prospects at VES 2 and less promising results at VES 5.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiation Pattern of a Circularly Polarized Microstrip Short Backfire Antenna

Kawa Abdoula

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/34595

A circularly polarized microstrip short backfire antenna (CPMSBA) with one ring corrugated rim, using aperture coupled feed method is proposed in this paper. The antenna is designed to operate in KU-band. The simulation results verify the circular polarization. The impedance bandwidth is 0.83 GHz. The CP antenna provides good radiation pattern over the whole frequency range. The axial ratio bandwidth bwAR is 2.96%, the gain is 9.79 dBi, directivity is 10.17 dBi and radiation efficiency is 91.62%. The antenna has a compact structure, high electrical and mechanical characteristics, it can be used as a single antenna or as an element of microstrip antenna arrays with various applications in the various communication systems.