Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Radiological Health Risk Due to Gamma Exposure from River Water around Oil Bunking Centre in Rivers State, Nigeria

P. C. Ononugbo, A. C. Ogan

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33307

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess radiation health risk due to gamma exposure from river water around oil bunkering centers in Rivers state, Nigeria.

Study Design: This study was purely an experimental work.

Place and Duration of Study: Sampling started from the meeting point of Otamiri tributary and Imo River at the Abia /Rivers boundary to over seven kilometers along the Imo River; between July 2016 and January, 2017.

Methodology: 20 samples of river water were collected along coastal shore of Imo River with pre-washed 1.5 ml Polypropylene bottles. The bottles were rinsed with the water before collection and acidified immediately after collection with few drops of nitric acid. The bottles were sealed tightly with vinyl tapes and kept in the laboratory for 4 weeks for secular equilibrium of the radionuclides. The activity concentration of the radionuclides was measured using well calibrated Sodium Iodide detector.

Results: The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 2.02±0.02, 3.59±0.21 and 10.43±1.13 BqL-1. The mean annual effective dose estimated for infants, children and adult citizens that ingest river water sampled were 58.64, 0.19 and 0.24 mSvy-1 respectively. The values of annual effective dose for infants and adults exceeded the reference levels of 0.26, 0.2 and 0.10 mSvy-1 respectively while that for children is within the safe reference level. The estimated fatal cancer  risk to adult citizens and the lifetime hereditary effects show that 53 out of 10,000 citizens may suffer some form of cancer fatality and  596 out of 1000,000 citizens may suffer some form of hereditary effect since the values exceeded the USEPA recommended range.

Conclusion: The result of this study show that the river water under study has been radiologically impacted by oil bunking activities and may cause significant health risk. Hence few recommendations were made in this work which will help to reduce radiation exposure and possible health impact.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hybridization of Clarias spp. and Heteropneustes fossilis in Tripura, India

Ratan Kumar Saha, Himadri Saha

Advances in Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33376

The study was conducted to evaluate the viability of hybridization of different species of catfishes found in India. During different interspecific and intergeneric hybridization, maximum fertilization was found in cross II i.e. Clarias gariepinus ♂ x Clarias batrachus ♀ with 80% success and minimum success (40%) was encountered in cross IV (Clarias gariepinus ♂ x Heteropneustes fossilis ♀). Incubation period varied from 21 to 34 hours in different crosses with 35-75% hatching success.  Incubation of eggs were done in modified ‘Flow-through System’. The absorption of yolk sacs in all the crosses was noticed within 4-5 days time of development. All the larvae were fed with mixed zooplankton from 2nd day onwards (before absorption of yolk sac) which accelerated the survival rates of the larvae. A formulated feed was also used to feed the larvae. Maximum survival rate was found in cross II from 0 to 15 days of larval rearing. Growth performance was also encouraging in the cross II after 15 days of rearing as compared to other crosses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Potato Varieties for Growth, Yield, Quality and Economics under Different Levels of Nitrogen

A. S. Jatav, S. S. Kushwah, I. S. Naruka

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33599

Aims: This experiment was conducted to study the performance of different varieties of potato under various nitrogen levels for growth, yield and quality as well as their economics.

Study Design: Sixteen treatment combinations comprising of four varieties (V1-Kufri Jyoti, V2-Kufri Chipsona-2, V3-Kufri Chipsona-1 and V4-Kufri Pushkar) and four nitrogen doses (N1-100 kg/ha, N2-125 kg/ha, N3-150 kg/ha and N4-175 kg/ha). The experiment was laid in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was conducted at research field, Department of Vegetable Science College of Horticulture, Mandsaur during rabi season 2010-11.

Methodology: The healthy, uniform size tubers were planted at a spacing of 60×20 cm on 21 October, 2010. Phosphorus (P2O5 80 kg/ha), potassium (K2O 100 kg/ha) and different doses of nitrogen (as per treatment) were provided through Urea, DAP and Muriate of Potash. Full dose of phosphorus, potash and half dose of nitrogen were applied as basal in furrows at the time of planting. While the remaining quantity of nitrogen was applied in two split doses, 1st at first earthing-up and 2nd at second earthing-up (25 and 45 days after planting, respectively). Thereafter recommended package of practices were followed to raise the healthy crop. The crop was harvested on 15 February, 2011.

Results: The findings of present study revealed that among the varieties, Kufri Pushkar recorded maximum yield showing its superior performance over other varieties. With respect to quality attributes, variety Kufri Chipsona-2 exhibited high dry matter content, high starch content and low reducing sugar content which are the desired attributes for processing. Variety Kufri Chipsona-1 and Kufri Jyoti were next to Kufri Chipsona-2. Among the different doses of nitrogen, application of 150 kg N/ha resulted in maximum growth and yield attributes as well as total yield. It has also exhibited better quality parameters except reducing sugar. Combined effect of varieties and nitrogen levels showed highest economic return under application of 150 kg N/ha with variety Kufri Pushkar.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that combination of potato variety Kufri Pushkar along with application of nitrogen 150 kg/ha had proved to be superior over other combinations for growth, yield and economic returns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Outdoor Ambient Radiation and Evaluation of Radiological Risks of Coastal Communities in Ndokwa East, Delta State, Nigeria

C. P. Ononugbo, F. U. Nte

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33984

Aim: The aim of this study is to measure the outdoor ambient radiation and evaluate its associated radiological risk parameters of the coastal communities of Ndokwa East.

Study Design: The design of this study is purely experimental work.

Place and Duration: This study was carried out in five coastal communities of Ndokwa East. Methodology: Measurement of outdoor ambient radiation of the five coastal communities was done using a Radalert-200 nuclear radiation monitor (S.E international, inc. Summer town, USA), containing a Geiger Muller tube capable of detecting α, β, γ and X-rays within the temperature range of -10° to 50°C, and a geographical positioning system (GPS) were used to measure the precise location of sampling. Measurements were repeated six times at each site on different days within the 1 months to take care of any fluctuation in the environmental temperature, and this was repeated for 6 months in which the monitoring was carried out.

Results: The values of radiation exposure obtained range from 7.00 ± 0.05 µRh-1 (3.12 ± 0.45 µSv/week) in Asemuku08 and Okpai01 communities to 29.00 ± 0.021 µRh-1 (8.46 ± 2.05 µSv/ week) in Okpai 07 near  oil and gas drilling company site. The estimated mean outdoor absorbed dose rate for the five coastal communities ranges from 77.20 to 113.07 nGyh-1.The mean annual effective dose equivalent estimated for the five coastal communities ranges from 0.143 to 0.173 mSvy-1while the mean estimated excess lifetime cancer risk ranges from 0.495 × 10-3 to 0.607 × 10-3 which were higher than the world level of 0.29× 10-3.

Conclusion: The result of this studies clearly show that those coastal communities have been radio logically polluted by the oil and gas activities and farming practices in the area. Though these values obtained may not cause immediate health problems there is a probability of long term health risk on the residents of these communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Lead-210 in Surface Water nearby a Phosphate Mining at Semi-arid Region in Santa Quitéria, Ceará State, Brazil

Wagner de Souza Pereira, Alphonse Kelecom, Marcos Vivente Bento Macedo, Rosane Santos Araujo, Júlia Martinelli Fabbri, Dulcinea Silva Gomes Santos

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33213

Aims: To report the activity concentrations (AC) of 210Pb in surface waters in a semi-arid region, aiming to record these concentrations before the beginning of a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) mining operation, facilitating subsequent comparisons with the operational phase besides verifying the radioecological characteristics of this radionuclide and the potability of the water used for human consumption by the local population.

Study Design: The water samples were collected in a six points grid associated to places of human consumption, aiming to verify their radioecological characteristics and radiological potability.

Place and Duration of Study: The study site was a semi-arid region associated to a NORM phosphate deposit, between October 2009 and December 2011. No collection occurred in January and February 2010, accounting for 25 collections and 50 analyzes (soluble and particulate) per point.

Methodology: 1 L of water, per point, was collected acidulated and filtered. The filtrate was considered as the soluble fraction and the retained part as the particulate fraction. The 210Pb was separated by coprecipitation and analyzed by total beta counts. Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods and the values found were compared with international potability standards.

Results: The values found were within the international recommendations of ingestion of 210Pb in water (mean value of 0.05 Bq∙l-1 < recommended of 0.1 Bq∙l-1). Radionuclide radioecology proved to be complex. The total AC of 210Pb (sum of the soluble and particulate fractions) showed no difference between points, ranging from 0.05 Bq∙l-1 at point 01SQ to 0.10 Bq∙l-1 at point 04SQ. But when the AC of the fractions were analyzed, it could be verified that the AC of the particulate fraction were systematically higher than that of the soluble fraction.

Conclusion: The analyzed water, in relation to the activity concentration of 210Pb, is considered potable and the particulate fraction has higher AC than the soluble fraction. The characterization of the water must be complemented when entering the operation of the phosphate mine to verify the radiological environmental impact assessment of the enterprise.