Open Access Original Research Article

Perception and Attitude to Family Life Education among Parents in Osun State, Nigeria

Olugbenga Olusola Odu, Eyitope Oluseyi Amu, Samson Ayo Deji, Victor Adovi Aduayi, Olubayo O. Owoeye, Eyitayo Ebenezer Emmanuel

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33217

Background: Parents and guardians are important stakeholders in disseminating information about family life education (FLE) to their children. This study was carried out to assess the perception and attitude to FLE among parents and guardians in Osun State Nigeria.

Methods: The study, carried out between July and August, 2010, among parents and guardians in Egbedore Local Government Area (LGA), Osun State, Nigeria, employed a cross-sectional descriptive design. A pre-tested, self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from 400 parents who were recruited by multi-stage sampling method.  The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 42.4 ± 11.4 years; 52.0% were Christians while 43.5% were Muslims. Overall, 54.3% of the respondents had good perception of FLE while 45.7% had poor perception; 72.0% of the respondents had positive attitude to FLE while 28.0% had a negative attitude. There was a statistically significant association between religion, education, occupation and FLE perception and a statistically significant association between parental status, education, occupation and attitude to FLE (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Parents in Egbedore LGA of Osun State had good perception of and positive attitude to FLE. Parents should be encouraged to translate these positive dispositions into action by teaching their children about FLE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Database Derived Microsatellite Markers (SSRs) of Stevia rebaudiana for Cross-transferability Testing Across Species in Family Asteraceae

Poonam ., Shilpa ., Neha Sharma, Rajinder Kaur, Samriti .

Advances in Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32005

Aims: Simple sequence repeat markers derived from expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were used to carry out transferability studies across members of Asteraceae family.

Study Design: NTSY Spc ver.2.0 was used to construct similarity matrix and dendrogram.

Place and Duration of Study: Present study was undertaken in Department of Biotechnology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India -173230 from 2013-2015.

Methodology: EST-SSRs were used for PCR amplification of genomic DNA of Asteraceae family members. The data was compiled in the form of per cent polymorphism depending on polymorphic and monomorphic bands. Similarity matrix was generated to find out per cent similarity between species and dendrogram represented visual phylogenetic tree of species used.

Results: In this study we have studied the level of transferability of 45 Stevia EST-SSRs in 20 members of Asteraceae family, representing 20 genera of three subfamilies of Asteraceae. All selected 45 primers generated polymorphism. Transferability of the EST-SSRs ranged from 6.5% in Dimorphothica sinuata to 75.5% in Tagetes erecta, both of which belong to subfamily Asteroideae. Narrow base of studied material was depicted as similarity matrix values ranged from 0.00 to 0.30. Dendrogram was divided into two main clusters. Cluster ‘I’ contained only one genotype i.e. ‘Dimorphothica sinuata’, while Cluster ‘II’ consisted rest 20 species. 

Conclusion: Present study targeted those important members of Asteraceae family which were not undertaken all together for molecular studies. As number of sequences in database repository for Asteraceae family is low, thus utilizing the repository from one crop to other members of same family is the only way to carry forward molecular research. Overall our findings suggested that transferability of Stevia EST-SSRs across Asteraceae genera is varied, yet valuable, thereby providing a good set of markers for genetic diversity, molecular mapping, gene tagging and comparative mapping studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Image of Science: Neural Nets and the PIKA Model

Ana Muñoz van den Eynde, Belén Laspra, Irene Díaz García

Advances in Research, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33321

In spite of the efforts devoted to understand the relationship of society with science, the results have not been satisfactory. The aim of this study is to test the PIKA model, developed to contribute to a better understanding of the perspective of citizens in the relationship of society with science. Our hypothesis is that the interaction of citizens with science generates an image that determines how they react to it. We conceive this image as a mental map, and according to contributions from neurology, we consider that it is grounded on a neural net. The PIKA model postulates that there is a section of the image of science that accounts for the interaction of Perception, Interest, Knowledge, and willingness to Act. We used Structural Equation Modelling to obtain evidence to support this model. We used data from three Spanish samples: the 2006 and 2014 editions of the Survey on Social Perception of Science and Technology by the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology, and the answers to the PIKA Questionnaire of a sample of students from several Spanish universities. The sample of the 2006 edition of the survey of FECYT is comprised by 7.056 subjects from 18 years of age, while the 2014 edition includes 6.136 people. The sample that has completed the PIKA questionnaire includes 2.138 students from some Spanish universities. The results provide evidence in favour of the PIKA model in the three samples. We conclude that the image of science depicted as a neural net is useful to explain the interaction of citizens with science. Nevertheless, to achieve better understanding of this interaction we need better indicators of the factors that give shape to the citizens' image of science.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of the Antimicrobial Properties of Ficus exasperata Leaves from Akure Metropolis

S. I. Awala, O. E. Ajayi, O. A. Alabi, O. Ajayi, O. T. Olalekan

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/24726

Aim: The study was conducted to explore the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata (Sand paper tree) in vitro.

Study Design: Extracts from Ficus exasperata leaves were qualitatively screened for the phytochemical constituents, and their in vitro antimicrobial potency was evaluated against fourteen (14) fungal and bacterial isolates.

Results: The tested extracts contained tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides whereas, saponin, steroids, phlobatannin and anthraquinone were absent. The acetone extract of the leaf demonstrated better antimicrobial activity against 10 of the test organisms. However, the highest antimicrobial activity (31.27 mm) was exhibited by the methanol extract against referenced culture of Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the extracts also displayed better antibacterial than antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts ranged between 0.391-1.563 mg/mL, with the acetone extract displaying lower MIC values.

Conclusion: The occurrence of the observed phytochemicals in the extracts of Ficus exasperata (Sand paper tree) could be involved in the antimicrobial efficacy of the plant. The results from this study thus supports the folkloric use of the plants. Additionally, the plant could also be exploited for the production of drugs especially for staphylococci infections.

Open Access Review Article

Trans Fatty Acids: Replacement Technologies in Food

Isha Kaushik, Raj Bala Grewal

Advances in Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33297

Trans fatty acids (TFA’s) are the isomerization form of carbon double bonds and give desired physical and chemical properties as saturated fatty acids in food products. Some trans fatty acids occur naturally, while most of it is artificial. Major contributors of the TFA’s in the diet are fried and baked foods, in which partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are used. Increasing epidemiological and biochemical evidence has suggested a direct link of consumption of TFA’s rich food and various health disorders such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, breast cancer etc. In response to the increasing risk of diseases and public health concerns, food and nutritional organization recommends that the intake of TFA’s by all population groups should be kept as low as possible, which is about 1% of energy intake or less; and WHO (2004) has called for the elimination of TFA’s from the global food supply. There is considerable interest in zero- and low trans fats containing food products including food manufacturers, and demand of such products is rising. For production of such type of food products, knowledge about the chemical nature, nutritional aspects of TFA’s and role of food technologies available is required. Low TFA’s food products can be manufactured with use of technologies such as electrochemical hydrogenation, organogelation, interesterification, fractionation and speciality oils etc. The present paper focused on chemistry, nature, nutritional aspect, method of analysis, labelling and various novel replacement technologies that have ability to mimic the functionality of saturated fats, give desired application in baked, fried and confectionary products with low or zero trans fatty acids.