Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrodynamic Cavitation Applied to Corn Oil

V. Weber, K. Dölle

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32179

Shrinking oil resources increases the importance of substitutes in the form of biofuels. A variety of extraction processes for the generation of biodiesel out of vegetable based oils have been established in the last decades. This research investigates in the implementation of hydrodynamic cavitation on the molecular structure of vegetable based oils to bypass the transesterification reaction among the biodiesel refinery. Two experiment setups that differ in size and composition were used to treat Corn Oil. The decomposition of Potassium Iodide was used to proof the formation of cavitation during the experiments. The destructive effect was analyzed by GC, GC-MS and NMR technique. With the use of the last mentioned device, it was possible to identify a change in the spectrum. The formation of new peaks located in the typical chemical shift areas of Olefins indicated a destructive effect on the hydrocarbon chains. The impact on the molecular structure of the Corn Oil was obtained on a low level. Consequently, the generation of biodiesel could not be achieved but it creates the basis for further investigations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Bioformulations for the Management of Blackgram Dry Root Rot Caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub Butler)

P. Latha, M. Karthikeyan, E. Rajeswari

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33195

An attempt was made to control dry root rot using consortia of bioinoculants. A total of 10 fungal (Trichoderma) and 30 bacterial (Pseudomonas and Bacillus) isolates were collected and screened for their antagonistic activity against mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia bataticola under in vitro condition. Among these, Trichoderma (TL1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (PfUL(A)) and Bacillus subtilis (BsOP2) isolates exhibited maximum inhibition. As results of the compatibility of the biocontrol agents revealed that P. fluorescens strains were compatible with B. subtilis and Trichoderma but B. subtilis strains were not compatible with Trichoderma strains. The biocontrol consortia consisting of P. fluorescens (PfUL(A)) and B. subtilis (BsOP2) + Farm Yard Manure (FYM) + Neem cake was found to be promising in reducing dry root rot incidence under field conditions. The biocontrol consortia also induced high level of defense - related enzymes videlicet phenylalanine ammonia lyase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Cows' Milk Butter Processed in Khartoum State, Sudan

Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla, Saniya Saleem Jabir Ahmed, Siham Abdalla Rahamtalla

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33140

Aims: This investigation was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, fatty acid and cholesterol contents of butter processed in Khartoum State, Sudan.

Methodology: Butter was manufactured traditionally by farmers in Khartoum North (T1) and Omdurman (T2), in addition to butter manufactured commercially in a dairy plant (T3) and butter manufactured by researchers in the laboratory (T4). Physicochemical and sensory characteristics in addition to cholesterol level and free fatty acids profile were evaluated at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60-day intervals for samples stored at 5.0±1.0°C, and at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28-day intervals for samples stored at 25±2.0°C.

Results: The results showed high moisture, acidity and specific gravity in T1 (28.98%, 0.860% and 0.940 respectively), while fat, pH value and iodine index were high in T4 (82.5%, 4.53 and 29.00 mg I/100g, respectively) and solids-non-fat and melting point were high in T3 (2.01% and 28.32°C respectively). The saponification index was high in T2 and T3 (200.00 and 201.00 mg KOH/g respectively). The fatty acids C6:0 – C18:0, C16:1, C18:1 – C18:3, C20:0 were detected in varying concentrations. The cholesterol content was high in butter of T4 (166.7 mg/100 g). Butter of T1 was best in flavour (8.43) and overall acceptability (9.00), while butter of T3 was best in texture and colour (8.86).

Conclusion: There were variations in physicochemical and sensory characteristics in addition to cholesterol level and fatty acids content of butter manufactured by different methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nonlinear H∞ Guidance Design for Missile against Maneuvering Target

Jacqueline Munene Makena, Solomon Omwoma

Advances in Research, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33186

A new guidance law is derived for missile against maneuvering target by adopting nonlinear  control theory. The guidance law is based on three dimension (3D) nonlinear kinematics described by modified polar coordinate (MPC). In MPC, only three differential equations are used to describe the 3D relative motion between missile and target. The new guidance law is designed by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation by simultaneous policy update algorithm (SPUA). In SPUA a sequence of Lyapunov function equations (LFEs) are used in direct successive approximation of HJI equation resulting to one interactive loop instead of two loops. Gelerkin’s method is used to solve the LFEs and to develop Galerkin-based SPUA. Computationally efficient SPUA (CESPUA) based on Galerkin’s method was subsequently used to solve the LFE in each iterative loop of SPUA. The proposed guidance law does not require the information of the target accelerations and avoids control of relative velocity in the direction of line of sight. In comparison to sliding mode guidance law, the developed law utilizes less control energy, has smaller interception time, and offers better tracking performance against uncertain target accelerations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions and Practices of Herbicide Use among Peri Urban Vegetable Farmers in Selected Hubs of the Accra Plains

E. S. K. Ofori, S. Yeboah, F. Apaatah, J. Sintim, E. Ofori-Ayeh, M. Osae

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/33406

Aims: To assess the knowledge base of farmers regarding herbicide use and secondly determine the attitudes and practices of herbicide use among peri urban vegetable farmers.

Study Design: The study design is by survey and collation of questionnaire in selected urban areas noted for vegetable productions.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Ashaiman (5°40’41.42’’N, 0°2’15.27’’E) under Ashaiman Municipality, Dzorwulu (5.6116°N, 0.2034°W) under Ayawaso West district and Borhye (05.67682°N, 000.21194°W) under Ga East district of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. These areas are major vegetable production hubs in Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The study was conducted between July and August 2015.

Methodology: A questionnaire consisting of structured items was designed. Data was collected through a farm survey by face to face interviews with farmers during farm activities. Structured interview schedule with both open ended- and closed ended- questions was prepared and administered. The questions were written in English and response was elicited both in English and respondent’s lingua franca (Akan) of each of the survey community. A total of twenty (20) questionnaires were administered and the same number was returned. The site was selected based on the crops grown, herbicide usage.

Results: The herbicides used were Round up with Glyfosinate ammonium as active ingredients, Kwatriqua with Paraquat as active ingredient. Majority of the farmers observed precautionary measures such as wearing boots, overall and nose masks when applying the herbicides. All the farmers agreed to using herbicides in the land preparation of their farms. About 70% of the farmers makes 20% economic returns after herbicide applications. Equal numbers of the farmers use contact and selective herbicides in spraying their farms. Farmers select herbicides based on their quick action and effectiveness in killing the weeds.

Conclusion: The perceptions and practices of the farmers on herbicide use still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative. Government should in no time discourage the use of herbicides that have been banned by WHO and FAO. Government should educate farmers on Integrated Pest Management thereby reducing health hazards posed by herbicide usage. The indiscriminate use of herbicides, often in excess. Evaluations such as these, guidelines to users and clarifications to the population should be encouraged.