Open Access Short Research Article

Investigating a Southern Manchester Landfill Leachate

A. N. Nwachukwu, C. D. Henry

Advances in Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/29620

The leachate was analyzed for physicochemical parameters and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) levels were determined using pH meter and EC meter respectively, whilst TOC analyzer and Palintest Photometer were used to collect TOC and Ammonia (NH3) concentrations respectively. The results were evaluated in relation to soil standards recommended for soil remediation.The physicochemical characteristic of the leachate from the landfill suggests that they were more acidic (average pH = 6.86) in nature, with EC range of 540 to 1420 µS/cmwhile the TOC values were far above the regulated limit. High NH3 concentration values of up to 2.42 mg/L attests to the humic nature of this Landfill.The high concentration of colour observed could be due to the presence of organic substances. More landfill leachate parameters need to be monitored if a holistic analysis of this particular landfill leachate must be ensured.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Brevibacillus brevis OZF6 on Reduction of Chromium (VI) and Pea Growth

Parvaze Ahmad Wani, Akinware Najimdeen Olamide, Idris Adegbite Wasiu, Nusrat Rafi, Shazia Wahid

Advances in Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/31986

Aim: Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is toxic due to its high solubility in water and permeability through biological membranes and Cr (VI) interacts with proteins and nucleic acids which makes it more toxic and carcinogenic than trivalent. Microbes converting toxic chromium Cr (VI) to stable and less soluble Cr (III) can be used for detoxification of Cr (VI) from contaminated environment. In this study the authors wanted to evaluate the effect of chromium (VI) reducing Brevibacillus brevis OZF6 on the growth, photosynthestic pigments, nodulation and metal accumulation in pea crop.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Biological Sciences, Crescent University, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria in 2015.

Methodology: Cr (VI) reduction in both free and immobilized cells was evaluated by 1, 5-Diphenyl Carbazide method. Pigments, plant growth, and metal accumulation were determined as per the standard methods as described in materials and methods.

Results: Brevibacillus brevis OZF6 significantly reduced Cr (VI) when bacteria were immobilized by sodium alginate as compared to the free cells. Seed germination, pea growth, nodulation, photosynthetic pigments, and protein increased in pea plants after inoculation with Brevibacillus brevis OZF6 compared to un-inoculated pea plants amended with metal. OZF6 significantly decreased accumulation of chromium in roots and shoots compared to only metal-amended plants.

Conclusions: Due to above properties, B. brevis OZF6 could therefore be used as bioremediator of Cr (VI) in chromium contaminated environment and thus will protect the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Key to Effective Catalytic Action is Pre-catalytic Site Activity Preceding Enzyme-substrate Complex Formation

Ikechukwu I. Udema

Advances in Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/32676

Aims: i) To show that attractive electrostatic interaction is essential to stable enzyme-substrate formation, ii) to determine the minimum interparticle distance for maximum attractive interaction, iii) to determine the duration and the velocity of transit before enzyme substrate collision, and iv) to determine and show that the translational diffusion coefficient as time tends to infinity is much lower than at the beginning outside the influence of electrostatic interaction.

Study Design:  Theoretical and Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Research Division, Ude International Concepts LTD (862217), B. B. Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria; Owa Alizomor Secondary School, Owa Alizomor, Ika North East, Delta State, Nigeria. The research lasted between June, 2016 and March, 2017.

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used. Assays were carried out on Aspergillus oryzea salivary alpha amylase. Data obtained for the velocity of hydrolysis of starch were used to determine concentration of enzyme involved in catalytic activity. The concentrations of the enzyme and substrate were used to calculate the maximum interparticle distance between the enzyme and substrate in a reaction mixture volume equal to 2 mL.

Results: The terminal diffusion coefficient was either 3.982±0.417 exp (-15) m2 /s (Mean±SD) or 3.933±0.427 exp (-15) m2 /s (Median±SD). The duration of transit through the shortest interparticle distance and the velocity were either 3.560±0.373 ms (Mean±SD) or 3.577±0.361 ms (Median±SD) and either 2.436±0.163 mm/s (Mean±SD) or 2.487±0.169 mm/s (Median±SD) respectively.

Conclusion: The electrostatic interaction model is suitable for the description of the binding of the enzyme to the substrate. The diffusion coefficient was expectedly « bulk diffusion coefficient. The work done (a function of hydrodynamic radius) by the advancing enzyme per unit time is unique to the nature of the bullet molecule. Diffusion coupled with attractive electrostatic interaction between combining particles could enhance the frequency of effective collision of the particles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sorghum-Legume Intercrop on Quality and Rumen Degradability of Sorghum Stover in Adamawa State, Nigeria

T. F. Mbahi, Z. A. Gworgwor, B. Yakubu

Advances in Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/30851

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sorghum-legume intercrop on quality and rumen degradability of sole sorghum stover, sorghum stover with lablab or with groundnut intercrop at different stages of growth. The experimental design was randomized complete block design with three treatments and three replicates. Growth was significant (P<0.05) between treatments and higher at weeks 10 to 12. Crude protein was higher among sorghum with lablab or groundnut intercrop and least with sole sorghum stover and decreases with stage of growth, while ADF and NDF increases with stage of growth. A fistulated bunaji bull with 90 mm internal diameter was used for the degradability. Degradability was higher with sorghum stover with legume intercrops and least with sole sorghum stover and increases with time of incubation, but decreases with age of sorgum stover. The result indicated that sorghum-legume intercrop could lead to improved quality of stover, degradability and general performance of the animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Optimum Block Size and Shape in Uniformity Trial of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

Nishu Lohmor, Mujahid Khan, Kiran Kapoor, Nitin Tanwar

Advances in Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AIR/2017/31573

A uniformity trial for the determination of optimum size and shape of blocks was conducted at CCS Haryana Agricultural University research farm, Hisar, Haryana from February 2014 to June 2014 on sunflower hybrid 66A507 Pioneer, on a field of size 35 m × 40 m, which reduced to 32 m × 36 m after eliminating border effects. The crops of each basic unit (1 m × 1 m) were separately harvested and the contiguous plots grouped into blocks of 4, 8, 12 and 16 plots. The blocks elongated in the N-S direction were more effective in reducing error variation than those elongated in the E-W direction. The coefficient of variation decreased from 14.88 to 7.30 with increase in block size from 4 to 16 for plot size 1 m2, thus larger blocks were found to be more efficient (R2 = 0.963 for 16-plot blocks) than smaller ones. The 16 size block was found to be more efficient with block shape of 16 m × 1 m, which should be recommended for further researches on sunflower crop in the particular area. In general, blocking arrangements were found to be more efficient than those without blocking.